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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 190-201 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The VDI Guideline 3673 “Pressure Release of Dust Explosions” published in June 1979 [1] describes one of the possible constructional protective measures against the effect of dust explosions and provides details on the venting area requirements of vessels and silos. Thanks to the results of extensive explosion trials conducted in the last ten years on the problems addressed above, important gaps in our knowledge have been filled and new findings gained which have made a revision of the above guidline necessary. The contents of the new version are reported and attention drawn to modifications compared with the first version.
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 107-119 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperature of dust-air-mixtures are important technical safety indices. They are used for the assessment of the efficacy of the ignition sources expected in dust-air mixtures. First of all, the test apparatus and the determination procedures are introduced, including the significant parameters on the mentioned indices. Finally, the correlations are described between - the minimum ignition energy and the efficacy of electrostatic sparks,  - the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature and the mechanically generated sparks on the on hand, the limiting oxygen concentration and the limiting gap width of combustible dusts on the other hand,  - the minimum ignition temperature and hot steel surfaces (mechanically generated hot surfaces) or glowing particle nests surfaces.
    Additional Material: 28 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The knowledge of the ingition behavior of dust-air mixtures due to electrical sparks (MIE, Minimum Ignition Energy) and hot surfaces (MIT, Minimum Ignition Temperature) is important for risk assessments in chemical production plants. The ignition behavior determines the extent and hence the cost of preventive protection measures.This paper describes the use of the minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperature as very important safety indexes in practice.Based on the latest results from large scale experiments on pneumatic filling of silos with polymeric materials and new results of full scale filling tests using Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC) manufactured from a variety of materials, guidance can be given to ensure safe operation in different situations such as filling, emptying operations, type of powder handled.The aim of this paper is to assist people dealing with product. It reflects the present state of the art and current knowledge of the assessment and measures associated with powder handling.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 244-250 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An extinguishing barrier comprises an optical flame sensor and a HRD-Suppressor located downstream of the detected flame front. The effectiveness of an extinguishing barrier is based on its ability to detect an explosion in a pipeline by means of an optical flame detector whose tripping signal is amplified and then very quickly actuates the detonator-actuated valves of the pressurized HRD-Suppressors.Extensive practice-related tests in pipelines, having different cross sections and length, in pipelines connected with different vessels, have shown that extinguishing barriers can be used without reservation to halt or stop an explosion in practice. The amount of suppressant agent required depends on the nature of the combustible dusts, the nominal diameter of the protected pipeline, the explosion velocity and the maximum reduced explosion overpressure in the vessel. Most significantly, the theoretical understanding of explosion propagation and extinguishing has led to computer design guidance which has simplified system design. Explosions can be combated effectively in pipelines up to diameter 2500 mm.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 8 (1989), S. 129-140 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The size of venting areas of containers in dust explosions has hitherto been calculated by use of nomograms developed from tests in which explosible dust-air mixtures were produced by rapid discharge of combustible dust from storage containers. Such tests did not truly reflect the conditions prevailing when containers are charged with product in industrial practice. There was, therefore, a need to perform dust explosion tests with vented containers and pneumatic product filling. The results of such tests show that there is a considerable reduction in the venting area in comparison with that predicted from results obtained with earlier test procedures.
    Additional Material: 40 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 8 (1989), S. 165-176 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The ignition breakthrough behavior of combustible powders through gaps has ben investigated in the laboratory. Based on these data and on 1:1 experiments with rotary air locks, a nomogram has been set up from which the design parameters for rotary air locks as flame barriers against dust explosions can be read.
    Additional Material: 37 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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