Life and Medical Sciences
Cell & Developmental Biology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
We have carried out a comparative study of the protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by a wide range of mitogenic stimuli on a single cell type, Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. For this purpose we have used high-affinity antibodies directed to phosphotyrosine residues on proteins (Wang: Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:3640-3643, 1985) in immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy experiments. Immunoblotting experiments showed that all of the mitogens tested, including epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin, fetal calf serum, trypsin, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, increased the phosphorylation on tyrosine of a number of proteins. Most of the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation induced by each factor involved a small set of proteins with apparent molecular weights (Mr) above 50,000. Following stimulation with epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, increased phosphotyrosine modification of proteins with molecular weights corresponding to those of the respective receptors was observed. A protein band of apparent Mr 160,000 contained substantially increased levels of phosphotyrosine following insulin treatment, but tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was apparently below the level of detectability. The phosphotyrosine content of proteins with apparent Mr of 220,000, 120,000, and 70,000 was increased by all the agents tested. Phosphorylation on tyrosine of most of the proteins increased within a few minutes of the mitogenic stimulation, reached a peak, and returned more slowly to basal levels. Immunofluorescence labeling with the antibodies specific for phosphotyrosine showed a substantial increase in the amount of phosphotyrosine containing proteins only in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor and fetal calf serum. This finding suggests that most of the proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts are not concentrated in specific subcellular structures, but rather are diffusely distributed throughout the cell and are therefore not detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy.
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