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  • 1
    Keywords: Electronics ; Materials ; Nanotechnology
    ISBN: 9783540328209
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2000-10-01
    Description:  Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis ) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The “queen substance”, 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal. ©2000 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0028-1042
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1904
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-08-23
    Description: Eukaryote genomes contain multiple copies of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) harboring both highly conserved and variable regions. This has made nrDNA the most popular genetic marker for phylogenetic studies and the region of choice for barcoding projects. Furthermore, many scientists believe that all copies of nrDNA within one nucleus are practically identical due to concerted evolution. Here, we investigate the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana for intragenomic variation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA. Based on a modified deep sequencing approach, we provide a comprehensive list of ITS polymorphisms present in the two most widely used accessions of A. thaliana —Col-0 and L er. Interestingly, we found that some polymorphisms are shared between these genetically very distinct accessions. On the other hand, the high number of accession-specific polymorphisms shows that each accession can be clearly and easily characterized by its specific ITS polymorphism patterns and haplotypes. Network analysis based on the detected haplotypes demonstrates that the study of ITS polymorphism patterns and haplotypes is an extremely powerful tool for population genetics. Using the methods proposed here, it will now be possible to extend the traditionally species-bound barcoding concept to populations.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-15
    Description: Understanding the mechanism of toxicity of nanomaterials remains a challenge with respect to both mechanisms involved and product regulation. Here we show toxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Depending on the ligand chemistry, 1.4-nm-diameter AuNPs failed electrophysiology-based safety testing using human embryonic kidney cell line 293 cells expressing human ether-á-go-go-Related...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta mathematica hungarica 22 (1972), S. 325-330 
    ISSN: 1588-2632
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-8997
    Keywords: 53 B 25 ; 53 C 42 ; 53 C 25 ; third fundamental form metric ; hypersurfaces in nonflat space forms ; Einstein metric ; Codazzi tensor ; isoparametric hypersurfaces
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract For hypersurfaces with regular Weingarten operator in nonflat space forms we study the relations between the intrinsic geometry of the third fundamental form metric and the extrinsic geometry of the hypersurface. We prove a theorema-egregium-type result for this metric and, in particular, give a local classification of hypersurfaces in case of an Einstein structure of this metric.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Ligand-stabilized metal clusters ; nanoparticles ; quantum dots ; single electron logic ; microelectronic devices
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Small metal clusters, like Au55(PPh3)12Cl6, which fall in the size regime of 1–2 nm are colloidal nanoparticles with quantum properties in the transitional range between metals and semiconductors. These chemically tailored quantum dots show by the Quantum Size Effect (QSE) a level splitting between 20 and 100 meV, increasing from small particle sizes to the molecular state. The organic ligand shell surrounding the cluster acts like a dielectric “spacer” generating capacitances between neighboring clusters down to 10−18F. Therefore, charging effects superposed by level spacing effects can be observed. The ligand-stabilized colloidal quantum dots in condensed state can be described as a novel kind of artificial solid with extremely narrow mini or hopping bands depending on the chemically adjustable thickness of the ligand shell and its properties. Since its discovery, the Single Electron Tunneling (SET) effect has been recognized to be the fundamental concept for ultimate miniaturization in microelectronics. The controlled transport of charge carriers in arrangements of ligand-stabilized clusters has been observed already at room temperature through Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). This reveals future directions with new concepts for the realization of simple devices for Single Electron Logic (SEL). Part II presents models and connections between microscopic and macroscopic level, regardless of whether there already exist suitable nanoscale metal cluster compounds, and is aimed at the ultimate properties for a possible application in microelectronics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Nanoparticles ; Nanodispersion ; Permittivity ; Conductivity ; Polarization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The properties of nanodispersions depend sensitively on their microstructure. Precise preparation techniques are needed to ensure controlled and well-defined spatial distribution of particles. We report on the correlation between synthesis, microstructure and dielectric properties. We conclude that temperature-dependent broadband dielectric spectroscopy up to microwave frequencies allows an insight into the microstructure of nanodispersions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Alpine ; fodder plants ; genetic resources
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The permanent grassland in the northern alpine and prealpine regions of Germany, Austria and Switzerland is characterized by a large genetic diversity of commercially important grass and clover species. This gene pool is endangered by the increasing practice of grassland renovation. The collection of genetic resources from that marginal habitat serves two purposes, therefore: Utilization of the gene pool in breeding programmes, and conserving the natural variation of endangered habitats. A considerable number of ecotypes of various species has been collected by several workers over a period of thirty years. Special attention is given to the materials collected and evaluated by Scheller (several species), Tyler (several species), Spatz (perennial ryegrass), Krings & Simon (Italian ryegrass) and Simon (several species). The materials described contain genotypes which appear useful for the improvement of such agronomically important characters as date of heading, plant height, winter hardiness, persistency and rust resistance under marginal conditions. From Simon's collections six cultivars registered or applied for registration in the German List of Cultivars emerged.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Ligand-stabilized metal clusters ; nanoparticles ; quantum dots ; single electron logic ; microelectronic devices
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Small metal clusters, like Au55(PPh3)12Cl6, which fall in the size regime of 1–2 nm are colloidal nanoparticles with quantum properties in the transitional range between metals and semiconductors. These chemically tailored quantum dots show regarding the Quantum Size Effect (QSE) a level splitting between 20 and 100 meV, increasing from small particle sizes to the molecular state. The organic ligand shell surrounding the cluster acts like a dielectric “spacer” generating capacitances between neighboring clusters down to 10−18 F. Therefore, charging effects superposed by level spacing effects can be observed. The ligand-stabilized colloidal quantum dots in condensed state can be described as a novel kind of artificial solid with extremely narrow mini or hopping bands depending on the chemically adjustable thickness of the ligand shell and its properties. Since its discovery, the Single Electron Tunneling (SET) effect has been recognized to be the fundamental concept for ultimate miniaturization in microelectronics. The controlled transport of charge carriers in arrangements of ligand-stabilized clusters has been observed already at room temperature through Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). This reveals future directions with new concepts for the realization of simple devices for Single Electron Logic (SEL). Part I presents the fundamental aspects of small ligand-stabilized metal clusters as well as their physical properties, emphasizing their electronic and optical properties with respect to dielectric response at ambient temperatures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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