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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Solanum Hybrids ; Paternal ; Genes ; Callus ; Anther Culture ; Imprinting
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Stamen culture of several Solanum species and interspecific hybrids was performed and each stamen was scored for presence and origin of callus. Each species and hybrid has a characteristic callus growth pattern — either no growth (0), callus growth from the filament (F), or callus growth from the anther (A). Characteristic growth types of the interspecific hybrids indicate that callus growth takes precedence over no growth. Hybrids between F and A species exhibit mainly paternal passage of either characteristic callus type. Possible explanations for this pattern of inheritance are male plastome factors or imprinting of paternal genes. The latter explanation is presently preferred.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Chloroplast DNA ; Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus ; Maternal inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The incidence and inheritance of a chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) mutation/marker, BP10U, was studied in crosses among cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus). BP10U is about 400 bp larger than the more common BP10L allele. The occurrence of BP10U among carrot inbreds was widespread. Individual plants exhibited only one form of BP10, and cpDNA inheritance was strictly maternal. BP10U only occurred in male-fertile plants. Some male-fertile inbreds and all cytoplasmically male-sterile (petaloid) carrots had the BP10L allele. Alloplasmic cpDNA variation has been reported previously in Daucus, but this is the first report of variation and inheritance of cpDNA within cultivated carrot.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Genetic map ; RFLP ; AFLP ; RAPD ; SAMPL ; Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A 109-point linkage map consisting of three phenotypic loci (P 1, Y 2, and Rs), six restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), two random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), 96 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and two selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) was constructed for carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus; 2n=2x=18). The incidence of polymorphism was 36% for RFLP probes, 20% for RAPD primers, and 42% for AFLP primers. The overall incidence of disturbed segregation was 18%. Linkage relationships at a LOD score of 4.0 and θ=0.25 indicated 11 linkage groups. The total map length was 534.4 cM and the map was clearly unsaturated with markers spaced at 4.9 cM. AFLP P6B15 was 1.7 cM from P 1, AFLP P1B34 was 2.2 cM from Y 2, and AFLP P3B30XA was 8.1 cM from Rs.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words AFLP ; Bulked segregant analysis ; Daucus carota ; Inverse PCR ; Marker conversion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Recent advances have expanded the potential usefulness of molecular techniques for plant genetic research. AFLP is a powerful technique, allowing rapid and reliable analysis of multiple, potentially polymorphic sites in a single experiment. Because AFLP technology requires no a priori knowledge of genome structure or preparation of molecular probes, it is immediately useful for a wide variety of plant species. However, because AFLP markers are dominant, costly, and technologically demanding, the technique has limited application for large-scale, locus-specific uses. In carrot, the Y 2 locus controls carotene accumulation in the root xylem core. Although carrot is an important source of dietary carotene, little is known about the regulation and biosynthesis of carotenes in carrot. We identified six AFLP fragments linked to the Y 2 locus through a combination of F2 mapping and bulked segregant analysis. We have developed a procedure for generating simple, codominant, PCR-based markers from dominant AFLP fragments using a Y 2 -linked AFLP fragment as a model. Our converted marker requires only a simple PCR followed by standard agarose gel electrophoresis. It is rapid, simple, reliable, comparatively inexpensive, codominant, and non-radioactive. Conversion of AFLP fragments to forms better adapted to large-scale, locus-specific applications greatly expands the usefulness of this molecular technique.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A phenotypically and geographically diverse collection of 45 Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes was evaluated for its reaction to the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) under greenhouse conditions. A significant ecotype effect was observed for both criteria used for host reaction assessment: namely, root-gall rating (RGR) and nematode reproductive index (RI). A non-host (non-galling) response was not detected in this germplasm collection. The majority of the ecotypes showed high degrees of RGR and RI. However, some medium-late maturing ecotypes such as ‘CS-1540’ and ‘CS-6028’(both collected in the UK) displayed high RGR but in association with very reduced RI. The confirmation of A. thaliana as an experimental host of M. hapla and the identification of differential levels of response to infection by this endoparasitic nematode provides the opportunity for genetic and molecular characterization of a new set of plant genes expressed during plant-nematode interaction. A. thaliana is the smallest and the best characterized genome among plant species, which may facilitate gene isolation and cloning. This may hasten transgenic transfer to economically important host plants of the genetic factors controlling low RI levels identified in some A. thaliana ecotypes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Four inbred lines of carrot (cytoplasmic male-steriles and corresponding maintainers) and eight of their F1 hybrids were studied with the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to examine their genetic relationship and produce markers useful for testing hybrid seed purity. Eighty-six polymorphic amplicons were identified in bulked DNA samples using eight primer pair combinations. Genetic distance was estimated on the basis of the presence or absence of polymorphic bands. The dendrogram plotted on the basis of the AFLP data closely represented the pedigree relationships of the lines and their hybrids. From one to six amplicons specific for a breeding line were identified. Most of them were also present in the DNA bulks of respective F1 hybrids. However, screening performed on individual plants of two parental lines and the corresponding hybrid indicated insufficient uniformity of parental lines, limiting the applicability of AFLP markers for testing hybrid seed purity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Daucus ; Regeneration ; Ethylene ; Protein ; Isozymes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cultures derived from domestic carrot (Daucus carota L.) inbreds were found to vary with respect to regeneration potential as measured by the production of somatic embryos in suspension cultures. A number of biochemical parameters previously reported to distinguish embryogenic from non-embryogenic cultures of other species were measured in these carrot cell lines. Ethylene production was found to be inversely related to regeneration potential. The cell line producing the greatest number of somatic embryos exhibited the lowest rate of ethylene biosynthesis, even when grown on 2, 4-D-containing maintenance medium. A specific isozyme of acid phosphatase was associated with embryogenic calli. Proteins visualized by SDS-PAGE did not discriminate between embryo-forming and proliferating calli in all inbreds.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sexual plant reproduction 7 (1994), S. 282-286 
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Allium sativum L ; Sexual reproduction Seed
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Despite a long history of obligate vegetative propagation, selected garlic clones can produce sexual seeds. By removing vegetative topsets from the inflorescence and cutting inflorescences from the underground bulb, 63 germinable seeds were produced from 11 garlic clones in Wisconsin. Protein analysis of the seedlings confirms their snygamic origin. The generation of new recombinants through sexual reproduction could have a major impact on garlic production worldwide.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Bulked segregant analysis ; Carrot ; Daucuscarota ; Disease resistance ; Meloidogyne javanica ; Root-knot nematode
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Inheritance studies have indicated that resistance to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in carrot inbred line ’Brasilia-1252’ is controlled by the action of one or two (duplicated) dominant gene(s) located at a single genomic region (designated the Mj-1 locus). A systematic search for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to Mj-1 was carried out using bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Altogether 1000 ten-mer primers were screened with 69.1% displaying scorable amplicons. A total of approximately 2400 RAPD bands were examined. Four reproducible markers (OP-C21700, OP-Q6500, OP-U12700, and OP-AL15500) were identified, in coupling-phase linkage, flanking the Mj-1 region. The genetic distances between RAPD markers and the Mj-1 locus, estimated using an F2 progeny of 412 individuals from ’Brasilia 1252’×’B6274’, ranged from 0.8 to 5.7 cM . The two closest flanking markers (OP-Q6500 and OP-AL15500) encompassed a region of 2.7 cM . The frequency of these RAPD loci was evaluated in 121 accessions of a broad-based carrot germplasm collection. Only five entries (all resistant to M. javanica and genetically related to ’Brasilia 1252’) exhibited the simultaneous presence of all four markers. An advanced line derived from the same cross, susceptible to M. javanica but relatively resistant to another root-knot nematode species (M. incognita), did not share three of the closest markers. These results suggest that at least some genes controlling resistance to M. incognita and M. javanica in ’Brasilia 1252’ reside at distinct loci. The low number of markers suggests a reduced amount of genetic divergence between the parental lines at the region surrounding the target locus. Nevertheless, the low rate of recombination indicated these markers could be useful landmarks for positional cloning of the resistance gene(s). These RAPD markers could also be used to increase the Mj-1 frequency during recurrent selection cycles and in backcrossing programs to minimize ’linkage drag’ in elite lines employed for the development of resistant F1 hybrids.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Carrot ; Daucus carota L. ; Disease resistance ; Meloidogyne javanica ; Root knot nematodes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are serious pests of carrot (Daucus carota L.) worldwide. While soil treatment with nematicides is the primary means for managing nematodes in carrot, there is a need to identify and introduce host plant resistance for crop improvement. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of resistance to root-galling and reproduction by M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood in a selection (BR-1252) of carrot variety Brasilia. F2, F3, F4, and BC1 progenies from the cross BR-1252×B6274 (a susceptible inbred line) were screened in pot tests for reaction to M. javanica. The observed reactions based on galling and egg production on fibrous roots gave segregation patterns in all tests that were consistent with relatively simply inherited dominant resistance. Field testing in progress indicates that this resistance is very effective against both M. javanica and M. incognita. A single gene model fits the observed data acceptably well in F3 generations. However, the range of 3% to 51% susceptible plants in segregating F3 families and 1% to 47% in segregating F4 families is much wider than the 25% expected with a single-gene model, and linked duplicate factors in the coupling phase could also explain the observed segregation patterns. The variation in percentage susceptibility among these families did not clearly cluster into three expected categories (25% S, 20.25% S, and 0.25% S for a 10-cM linkage distance, or 25% S, 16% S and 1% S for 20 cM), but it did tend to occur over the same range. Thus a 10-cM to 20-cM-linked duplicate factor model cannot be dismissed at this time. Egg production data in the F2, F3, and F4 families provided evidence for slightly lower resistance expression in the heterozygous condition. Thus, while overall expressed in a dominant fashion, the resistance does exhibit some allelic dosage response.
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