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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Köln : Inst., Univ.
    Associated volumes
    Call number: MOP Per 192(38)
    In: Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie der Universität zu Köln
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 80 S. : graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Geophysik und Meteorologie der Universität zu Köln 38
    Note: Zugl.: Köln, Univ., Diss., 1983
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 4/M 03.0236
    In: Lecture notes in earth sciences
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XIII, 357 S.
    ISBN: 3540417966
    Series Statement: Lecture notes in earth sciences 97
    Classification: A..
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
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    National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce
    In:  In: Myrad 92 : Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications ; [held in Boulder, Colorado, January 14 - 16, 1992]. Proceedings of the Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications, 3 . National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, USA, pp. 276-280.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
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    National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce
    In:  In: Myrad 92 : Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications ; [held in Boulder, Colorado, January 14 - 16, 1992]. , ed. by Westwater, E. R. Proceedings of the Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications, 3 . National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, USA, pp. 27-31.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: The cloud liquid water path, LWP, over the North Sea during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989 (ICE'89) is derived from measurements of the microwave radiometer SSM/I on board.of the polar orbiting satellite DMSP and from measurements of a ground-based 33-GHz-radiometer operating on board of the German research vessel 'Poseldon'. Comparisons of maps of LWP compiled from the SSM/I data with time series computed from the ground-based system show no significant bias and agree within the range of uncertainty caused by the different sampling characteristics of the observing systems. Using a combination of SSM/I data and almost simultaneously recorded METEOSAT-IR data offers the possibility to identify different cloud types, e.g. to seperate cirrus clouds and cirrus with underlying water clouds. Both types may have the same IR-brightness temperature but different microwave brightness temperature because ice clouds have a negligible influence on the microwave radiances.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
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    Deutscher Wetterdienst
    In:  In: Deutsche Meteorologen-Tagung 1992 vom 16. bis 20. März 1992 in Berlin. Annalen der Meteorologie, 27 . Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany, pp. 276-277. ISBN 978-3-88148-271-4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
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    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 103 (C11). pp. 24983-24989.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-30
    Description: A Monte Carlo model is developed to calculate the microwave emissivity of the sea surface based on the Kirchhoff approximation combined with modified Fresnel coefficients. The modified Fresnel coefficient depends on the incident angle of the electromagnetic wave and the height variance of small‐scale roughness, which is an approximation to account partly for the scattering effect from small ripples. The advantage of the Monte Carlo model is its inherent capability to treat multiple scattering events. Using a two‐dimensional Gaussian distribution for the sea surface slope variability, the model is capable of simulating the azimuthal dependency of the microwave emission caused by the alignment of waves perpendicular to the wind direction. Good agreement between model calculations and measurements is obtained.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: A radiative transfer model to compute brightness temperatures in the microwave frequency range for polar regions including sea ice, open ocean, and atmosphere has been developed and applied to sensitivity studies and retrieval algorithm development. The radiative transfer within sea ice is incorporated according to the “many layer strong fluctuation theory” of Stogryn [1986, 1987] and T. Grenfell [Winebrenner et al., 1992]. The reflectivity of the open water is computed with the three-scale model of Schrader [1995]. Both surface models supply the bistatic scattering coefficients, which define the lower boundary for the atmospheric model. The atmospheric model computes the gaseous absorption by the Liebe et al. [1993] model. Scattering by hydrometeors is determined by Mie or Rayleigh theory. Simulated brightness temperatures have been compared with special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) observations. The comparison exhibits shortcomings of the ice model for 37 GHz. Applying a simple ad hoc correction at this frequency gives consistent comparison results within the range of observational accuracy. The simulated brightness temperatures show the strong influence of clouds and variations of wind speed over the open ocean, which will affect the sea ice retrieval even for an ice-covered ocean. Simulated brightness temperatures have been used to train a neural network algorithm for the total sea ice concentration, which accounts for these effects. Sea ice concentrations sensed from the SSM/I data using the network and the NASA sea ice algorithm show systematic differences in dependence on cloudiness.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
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    Deutscher Wetterdienst
    In:  In: Deutsche Meteorologen-Tagung 1992 vom 16. bis 20. März 1992 in Berlin. Annalen der Meteorologie, 27 . Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany, pp. 279-280. ISBN 978-3-88148-271-4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
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    Springer
    In:  Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 54 (1-4). pp. 157-171.
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: A method is presented to infer cloud liquid water path (LWP in kg/m2) over the ocean from passive microwave measurements of SSM/I. The algorithm to retrieve LWP is based on simulated satellite observations. They are calculated with a radiative transfer model applied to about 3000 radiosonde ascents over the Atlantic Ocean. Since radiosonde observations do not contain direct information about cloud water and ice, these parameters are parameterized based on relative humidity and temperature using modified adiabatic liquid water density profiles. A multiple linear regression is applied to the simulated radiances and the calculated LWP to derive the algorithm. The retrieval accuracy based on the regression analysis including instrumental noise is 0.03 kg/m2. Validation of the LWP-algorithm was pursued through a comparison with measurements of a ground-based 33 GHzmicrowave radiometer on board of R.V. “Poseidon” during the International Cirrus Experiment 1989 at the North Sea (ICE'89). The LWP values agree within the range of uncertainty caused by the different sampling characteristics of the observing systems. The retrieval accuracy for clear-sky cases determined using colocated METEOSAT data over the North Sea is 0.037 kg/m2 and confirms the accuracy estimated from regression analysis for the low liquid water cases. The algorithm was used to derive maps of monthly mean LWP over the Atlantic Ocean. As an example the Octobers of the 5 years 1987–1991 were selected to demonstrate the interannual variability of LWP. The results were compared with the cloud water content produced by the climate model ECHAM-T2 from the Max-Planck-Institut Hamburg. Observations during ICE'89 were used to check the accuracy of the applied radiative transfer model. Brightness temperatures were calculated from radiosonde ascents launched during the overpass of DMSP-F8 in cloud-free situations. The channel-dependent differences range from about −2 to 3 K. The possibility to identify different cloud types using microwave and infrared observations was examined. The main conclusion is that simultaneous microwave and infrared measurements enable the separation of dense cirrus and cirrus with underlying water clouds. A classification of clouds with respect to their top heights and LWP was carried out using a combination of SSM/I derived LWP and simultaneously recorded Meteosat IR-data during ICE'89.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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