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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-10-14
    Description: Anthropogenically driven climate change will rapidly become Earth's dominant transformative influence in the coming decades. The oceanic biological pump—the complex suite of processes that results in the transfer of particulate and dissolved organic carbon from the surface to the deep ocean—constitutes the main mechanism for removing CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestering carbon at depth on submillennium time scales. Variations in the efficacy of the biological pump and the strength of the deep ocean carbon sink, which is larger than all other bioactive carbon reservoirs, regulate Earth's climate and have been implicated in past glacial-​interglacial cycles. The numerous biological, chemical, and physical processes involved in the biological pump are inextricably linked and heterogeneous over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and they influence virtually the entire ocean ecosystem. Thus, the functioning of the oceanic biological pump is not only relevant to the modulation of Earth's climate but also constitutes the basis for marine biodiversity and key food resources that support the human population. Our understanding of the biological pump is far from complete. Moreover, how the biological pump and the deep ocean carbon sink will respond to the rapid and ongoing anthropogenic changes to our planet—including warming, acidification, and deoxygenation of ocean waters—remains highly uncertain. To understand and quantify present-day and future changes in biological pump processes requires sustained global observations coupled with extensive modeling studies supported by international scientific coordination and funding
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Springer
    In:  In: Microbial Sulfur Metabolism. , ed. by Dahl, C. and Friedrich, C. G. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 238-258. ISBN 978-3-540-72679-1
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The short-chain hydrocarbons ethane, propane and butane are constituents of natural gas. They are usually assumed to be of thermochemical origin, but biological formation of ethane and propane has been also observed. Microbial utilization of short-chain hydrocarbons has been shown in some ...
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-12-07
    Description: Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are extreme environments that share many characteristics with their deep-sea analogs. However, despite ease of access, much less is known about the geochemical dynamics of these ecosystems. Here, we report on the spatial and temporal geochemical dynamics of a shallow-water vent system at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece. Our multi-analyte voltammetric profiles of dissolved O2 and hydrothermal tracers (e.g. Fe2 +, FeSaq, Mn2 +) on sediment cores taken along a transection in hydrothermally affected sediments indicate three different areas: the central vent area (highest temperature) with a deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediment, and a lack of dissolved Fe2 + and Mn2 +; a middle area (0.5 m away) rich in dissolved Fe2 + and Mn2 + (exceeding 2 mM) and high free sulfide with potential for microbial sulfide oxidation as suggested by the presence of white mats at the sediment surface; and, finally, an outer rim area (1–1.5 m away) with lower concentrations of Fe2 + and Mn2 + and higher signals of FeSaq, indicating an aged hydrothermal fluid contribution. In addition, high-frequency temperature series and continuous in situ H2S measurements with voltammetric sensors over a 6-day time period at a distance 0.5 m away from the vent center showed substantial variability in temperature (31.6 to 46.4 °C) and total sulfide (488 to 1329 μM) in the upper sediment layer. The analysis of these data suggests that tidal and wind forcing, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Despite substantial variability, the concentration of sulfide available for chemoautotrophic microbes remained high. However, the availability of electron acceptors originating from seawater might be more intermittent, which in turn has an effect on the reestablishment of the white mats after wave-induced disturbances. Our results emphasize the importance of transient events in the development of chemoautotrophic communities in the hydrothermally influenced sediments of Paleochori Bay.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were carried out on natural microbial communities, on an enrichment culture obtained from the Broken Spur chimney, and on novel chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and reference strains originally isolated from several different deep-sea vents. Our data showed that the three MAR hydrothermal vent chimneys investigated in this study host very different microbial assemblages. The microbial community of the Rainbow chimney was dominated by thermophilic, autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur- and nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria related to the genus Caminibacter. The detection of sequences related to sulfur-reducing bacteria and archaea (Archaeoglobus) indicated that thermophilic sulfate reduction might also be occurring at this site. The Logatchev bacterial community included several sequences related to mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while the archaeal component of this chimney was dominated by sequences related to the ANME-2 lineage, suggesting that anaerobic oxidation of methane may be occurring at this site. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggested that Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle (rTCA) at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella were prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-22
    Description: Autotrophic carbon fixation was characterized in representative members of the three lineages of the bacterial phylum Aquificae. Enzyme activity measurements and the detection of key genes demonstrated that Aquificae use the reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation. This is the first time that strains of the Hydrogenothermaceae and ‘Desulfurobacteriaceae’ have been investigated for enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation. Unexpectedly, two different mechanisms of citrate cleavage could be identified within the Aquificae. Aquificaceae use citryl-CoA synthetase and citryl-CoA lyase, whereas Hydrogenothermaceae and ‘Desulfurobacteriaceae’ use ATP citrate lyase. The first mechanism is likely to represent the ancestral version of the reductive TCA cycle. Sequence analyses further suggest that ATP citrate lyase formed by a gene fusion of citryl-CoA synthetase and citryl-CoA lyase and subsequently became involved in a modified version of this pathway. However, rather than having evolved within the Aquificae, our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Aquificae obtained their ATP citrate lyase through lateral gene transfer. Aquificae play an important role in biogeochemical processes in a variety of high-temperature habitats. Thus, these findings substantiate the hypothesis that autotrophic carbon fixation through the reductive TCA cycle is widespread and contributes significantly to biomass production particularly in hydrothermal habitats.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: Background: The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the faunal biomass at many deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In its enlarged gill chamber it harbors a specialized epibiotic bacterial community for which a nutritional role has been proposed. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed specimens from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by complementing a 16S rRNA gene survey with the analysis of genes involved in carbon, sulfur and hydrogen metabolism. In addition to Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria, the epibiotic community unexpectedly also consists of Deltaproteobacteria of a single phylotype, closely related to the genus Desulfocapsa. The association of these phylogenetic groups with the shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Based on functional gene analyses, we hypothesize that the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria are capable of autotrophic growth by oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds, and that the Deltaproteobacteria are also involved in sulfur metabolism. In addition, the detection of proteobacterial hydrogenases indicates the potential for hydrogen oxidation in these communities. Interestingly, the frequency of these phylotypes in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the mouthparts differ from that of the inner lining of the gill chamber, indicating potential functional compartmentalization. Conclusions: Our data show the specific association of autotrophic bacteria with Rimicaris exoculata from the Snake Pit hydrothermal vent field, and suggest that autotrophic carbon fixation is contributing to the productivity of the epibiotic community with the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle as one important carbon fixation pathway. This has not been considered in previous studies of carbon fixation and stable carbon isotope composition of the shrimp and its epibionts. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing epibionts raises the possibility that both may be involved in the syntrophic exchange of sulfur compounds, which could increase the overall efficiency of this epibiotic community.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-01-09
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-10-12
    Description: Presented here is the complete genome sequence of Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, representative of ubiquitous chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This gammaproteobacterium has a single chromosome (2,427,734 base pairs), and its genome illustrates many of the adaptations that have enabled it to thrive at vents globally. It has 14 methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein genes, including four that may assist in positioning it in the redoxcline. A relative abundance of coding sequences (CDSs) encoding regulatory proteins likely control the expression of genes encoding carboxysomes, multiple dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate transporters, as well as a phosphonate operon, which provide this species with a variety of options for acquiring these substrates from the environment. Thiom. crunogena XCL-2 is unusual among obligate sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in relying on the Sox system for the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. The genome has characteristics consistent with an obligately chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, including few transporters predicted to have organic allocrits, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle CDSs scattered throughout the genome.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-11-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Society for Microbiology, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Society for Microbiology for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74 (2008): 1145-1156, doi:10.1128/AEM.01844-07.
    Description: Sulfur-oxidizing epsilonproteobacteria are common in a variety of sulfidogenic environments. These autotrophic and mixotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are believed to contribute substantially to the oxidative portion of the global sulfur cycle. In order to better understand the ecology and roles of sulfur-oxidizing epsilonproteobacteria, in particular those of the widespread genus Sulfurimonas, in biogeochemical cycles, the genome of Sulfurimonas denitrificans DSM1251 was sequenced. This genome has many features, including a larger size (2.2 Mbp), that suggest a greater degree of metabolic versatility or responsiveness to the environment than seen for most of the other sequenced epsilonproteobacteria. A branched electron transport chain is apparent, with genes encoding complexes for the oxidation of hydrogen, reduced sulfur compounds, and formate and the reduction of nitrate and oxygen. Genes are present for a complete, autotrophic reductive citric acid cycle. Many genes are present that could facilitate growth in the spatially and temporally heterogeneous sediment habitat from where Sulfurimonas denitrificans was originally isolated. Many resistance-nodulation-development family transporter genes (10 total) are present; of these, several are predicted to encode heavy metal efflux transporters. An elaborate arsenal of sensory and regulatory protein-encoding genes is in place, as are genes necessary to prevent and respond to oxidative stress.
    Description: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, under contract W-7405-ENG-48. Genome closure was funded in part by a USF Innovative Teaching Grant (K.M.S.). S.M.S. received partial support through a fellowship from the Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg in Delmenhorst, Germany (http://www.h-w-k.de), and NSF grant OCE-0452333. K.M.S. is grateful for support from NSF grant MCB-0643713. M.H. was supported by a WHOI postdoctoral scholarship. M.G.K. was supported in part by incentive funds provided by the UofL-EVPR office, the KY Science and Engineering Foundation (KSEF-787-RDE-007), and the National Science Foundation (EF-0412129).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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