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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Forty-five high-latitude, OB stars have been observed in the Ly alpha and 21 cm lines of HI in an effort to map out the vertical distribution and extent of the local HI halo. The 25 stars for which a reliable HI colum density can be obtained from Ly alpha lie between 60 and 3100 pc from the plane. The principal result is that the total column density of HI at z 1 kpc is, on the average, 5 + or - 3 x 10 the 19th power/sq cm, or 15% of the total sub HI. At relatively low z the data toward some stars suggest a low effective scale height and fairly high average foreground density, while toward others the effective scale height is large and the average density is low. This can be understood as the result of irregularities in the interstellar medium. A model with half of the HI mass in clouds having radii of a few pc and a Gaussian vertical distribution with sigma sub 2 = 135 pc, and half of the mass in an exponential component with a scale height of 500 pc, gives a satisfactory fit to the data. The technique of comparing Ly alpha and 21 cm column densities is also used to discuss the problem of estimating the distance to several possibly subluminous stars.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NAS 1.26:176115 , NASA-CR-176115
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The interstellar medium of a galaxy containing an active nucleus may be profoundly affected by the high energy (X-ray, EUV) continuum flux emanating from the central source. The energetic source may photoionize the interstellar medium out to several kiloparsecs, thereby creating a global H II region. The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite has attempted to observe in several Seyfert galaxies (NGC 3516, NGC 4151, NGC 1068, 3C 120) the narrow absorption lines expected from such global H II regions. Instead, in two of the galaxies (NGC 3516, NGC 4151) broad, variable absorption lines at C IV lambda 1550, N V lambda 1240, and Si IV lambda 1400 were found, as well as weaker absorption features at O I lambda 1302 and C II lambda 1335. These features swamp any possible global H II region absorption. Such broad absorption features have previously been observed in IUE data, but their origin is still not well understood.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center Summer School on Interstellar Processes: Abstracts of Contributed Papers; p 77-78
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The X-ray observations of young remnants and their theoretical interpretation are described. A number of questions concerning the nature of the blast wave interaction with the interstellar gas and grains and of atomic processes in these hot plasmas are considered. It is concluded that future X-ray spectrometers with high collecting area, moderate spectral resolution and good spatial resolution can make important contributions to the understanding of supernova remnants in the Milky Way and neighboring galaxies and of their role in the global chemical and dynamical evolution of the interstellar medium.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center X-ray Astronomy in the 1980's; p 107-117
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: The present conference on the interstellar medium in galaxies discusses the cool phase of the interstellar medium, molecular clouds in spiral galaxies, interstellar dust in galaxies, and the diffuse interstellar medium. Attention is given to cooling flows and X-ray emission in early-type galaxies, the interstellar medium in active galaxies, abundances in extragalactic H II regions, and thermal phases of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Topics considered include large-scale interstellar gasdynamics in disk galaxies, gas during mergers, magnetic fields in galaxies, and large-scale star formation in the interstellar medium. Also discussed are gaseous halos and disks of galaxies at large redshift, the star-gas cycle in galaxies, measuring atomic hydrogen masses using the 21-cm line, and mass determinations from far-infrared and from CO observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0066-4146
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Several absorption components detected in visible or UV lines have been identified with emission features in new high-resolution, high signal-to-noise 21 cm observations. Stars for which direct overlap is obtained are HD 28497, lambda Ori, mu Col, HD 50896, rho Leo, HD 93521, and HD 219881. With the use of the inferred H I column densities from 21 cm profiles, rather than the integrated column densities obtained from L-alpha, more reliable densities can be derived from the existence of molecular hydrogen. Hence the cloud thicknesses are better determined; and 21 cm emission maps near these stars can be used to obtain dimensions on the plane of the sky. It is now feasible to derive detailed geometries for isolated clumps of gas which produce visual absorption features.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 219
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Physical mechanisms for producing vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen, such as has recently been detected toward the Orion Nebula, are discussed. The most likely mechanisms are collisional excitation behind a shock moving into a molecular cloud and near-ultraviolet pumping in the H2 Lyman and Werner bands and subsequent cascade. The absolute intensities of the Orion lines require either a 10-km/s shock moving into a cloud with a density of 300,000 per cu cm or an incident near-UV flux 1 million times the mean interstellar value. The shock model is favored because it matches the observed relative line intensities and because the near-UV source, Theta-1 Ori C, may be too weak to provide the required flux. Intensities of other H2 lines in the shock model are predicted as a further observational discriminant.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 216
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Based on line-of-sight models and profile fitting, abundance variations of Ca, Si, Fe, and Na in high-velocity interstellar clouds toward Mu Columbae, HD 28497, and HD 50896 are discussed. The correlation of larger ratios N(Ca II)/N(Na I) with increasing radial velocity in clouds with absolute values of radial velocity from 20 to 100 km/s, is shown to quite likely be due to abundance variations in Ca rather than an ionization effect. Copernicus UV data show that the ratios N(Fe II)/N(S II) and N(Si II)/N(S II) have the same velocity correlation as Ca II, and the ambiguity concerning the relative abundance of Na I to hydrogen is removed. Theories of grain disruption are discussed as they relate to the observed Ca, Si, and Fe enhancements and their correlation with cloud velocity.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 211
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Models are presented of interstellar shocks in molecular clouds over ranges of ambient molecular density from 1000 to 10 million per cu cm and shock velocity from 6 to 14 km/s. Estimates of H2-H2 collisional-excitation rates are used to derive the H2 radiative cooling rates from vibrational-rotational quadrupole transitions as a function of n(H2) and temperature. The emissivities integrated through the shock of the strongest infrared lines in the v = 1-0, 2-0, and 2-1 bands of H2. The effectiveness of H2 dissociative cooling is considered for the highest-velocity shocks. The H2 line intensities from such shocks are compared with those produced by the 'competitive' mechanism of UV pumping for two likely driving mechanisms of shocks - wind-driven shells and expanding H II regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 220
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Recent Copernicus observations of high-velocity interstellar Si III have been interpreted as evidence for collisionally ionized gas at 30,000 to 80,000 K. In this paper, these observations are summarized, and conductive-interface and shock-heating mechanisms are investigated as sources for the temperatures, column densities, and velocity fields. The conductive mechanism evidently cannot reproduce the observations, but radiatively cooling shocks of 50 to 100 km/s, produced by supernova remnants or stellar winds, may provide a viable explanation. Time-dependent calculations of the cooling and ionization behind such shocks show the importance of initial ionization conditions at 100,000 K and produce results substantially different from those of calculations which start at 1 million K.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 216
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