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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: fluid shear stress ; adrenomedullin ; endothelial cell ; SSRE ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Vascular endothelial cells are potent modulators of vascular tone in response to shear stress. Levels of vasoactive peptides such as adrenomedullin (AM), endothelin-1 (ET-1), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and nitric oxide (NO) are affected by fluid shear stress. AM, a potent vasodilator and suppressor of smooth muscle cell proliferation, contains the shear stress responsive element (SSRE) “GAGACC” in its promoter region. To examine the role of AM in the shear stress response, cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were exposed to fluid shear stresses of 12 and 24 dynes/cm2 in a cone-plate shear stress loading apparatus for various time periods, and the levels of AM gene expression and peptide secretion from HAoECs were measured by Northern blotting analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA), respectively. Both AM gene transcription and AM peptide levels were down-regulated by fluid shear stress in a time- and magnitude-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the normal level of arterial shear stress down-regulates AM expression in HAoECs, suggesting that AM participates in the modulation of vascular tone by fluid shear stress. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:109-115, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: calcyculin A ; protein phosphatase ; cytoskeleton ; endothelial cell ; immunocytochemsitry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins regulate the shape of eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP) in this process, we studied the effect of calyculin A (CLA), a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP-1) and 2A (PP-2A) on the cytoskeletal structure of cultured human umbilical vien endothelial cells (HUVECs). The addition of CLA (5 min) caused marked alterations in cell morphology, such as cell constriction and bleb formation. Microtubules and F-actin were reorganized, becoming markedly condensed around the nucleus. Although the fluorescence intensity of phosphoamino acids was not significantly different to immunocytochemistry between cells with and without CLA, polypeptides of 135, 140, 158, and 175 kDa were specifically phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues. There was no significant effect on tyrosine residues. The effects of CLA on cytoskeletal changes and protein phosphorylation were almost completely inhibited by the non-selective kinase inhibitor, K-252a. The effect of CLA on cell morphology was at least 100 times more potent than that of okadaic acid, consistent with the inhibitory potency against PP-1. The catalytic subunit of PP-1 was also identified in HUVECs by Western blotting with its monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that PP-1 is closely involved in sustaining the normal structure of the cytoskeleton. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: μ-calpain ; m-calpain ; calpastatin; μ-calpain activation in endothelial cells ; autolytic intermediate form of μ-calpain ; fully autolyzed postautolysis form of μ-calpain ; calpeptin ; talin ; filamin ; cytoskeletal proteolysis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The presence of the calpain-calpastatin system in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated by means of ion exchange chromatography, Western blot analysis, and Northern blot analysis. On DEAE anion exchange chromatography, calpain and calpastatin activities were eluted at approximately 0.30 M and 0.15-0.25 M NaCl, respectively. For half-maximal activity, the protease required 800 μM Ca2+, comparable to the Ca2+ requirement of m-calpain. By Western blot analysis, the large subunit of μ-calpain (80 kDa) was found to be eluted with calpastatin (110 kDa). Both the large subunit of m-calpain (80 kDa) and calpastatin were detected in the respective active fractions. By Northern blot analysis, mRNAs for large subunits of μ- and m-calpains were detected in single bands, each corresponding to approximately 3.5 Kb. Calpastatin mRNA was observed in two bands corresponding to approximately 3.8 and 2.6 Kb. Furthermore, the activation of μ-calpain in HUVEC by a calcium ionophore was examined, using an antibody specifically recognizing an autolytic intermediate form of μ-calpain large subunit (78 kDa). Both talin and filamin of HUVEC were proteolyzed in a calcium-dependent manner, and the reactions were inhibited by calpeptin, a cell-permeable calpain specific inhibitor. Proteolysis of the cytoskeleton was preceded by the appearance of the autolytic intermediate form of μ-calpain, while the fully autolyzed postautolysis form of μ-calpain (76 kDa) remained below detectable levels at all time points examined. These results indicate that the calpain-calpastatin system is present in human endothelial cells and that μ-calpain may be involved in endothelial cell function mediated by Ca2+ via the limited proteolysis of various proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 66:197-209, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]n ; Ca2+ gradients ; confocal laser scanning microscopy ; Fluo-3 ; heterogeneity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Ca2+ concentration inside human umbilical vein endothelial cells was studied separately in cytosol and nucleus by a confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-3. The in vivo calibration curve for cytosol and nucleus showed good linearity between fluorescence intensity and Ca2+ concentration in cytosol ([Ca2+]i) and nuclei ([Ca2+]n). After calibration, [Ca2+]n was constantly higher than [Ca2+]i before and after the chelation of extracellular Ca2+ suggesting an active Ca2+ accumulation system on nuclear membrane. [Ca2+]n was also constantly higher than [Ca2+]i after the stimulation of thrombin (0.05 U/ml), FCS (10%), and thapsigargin (Tsg, 1μM). The temporal change of [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]i was identical, and [Ca2+]i gradient towards the nucleus and peripheral or central [Ca2+]n rise was observed after these stimulations. From these results, [Ca2+]n is not only regulated by the active Ca2+ accumulation system on nuclear membrane at rest but also the generation of Inositol-triphosphate. FCS caused heterogeneous [Ca2+]n or [Ca2+]i rise from cell to cell; single spike or oscillatory change of [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]i was observed in about 56% of cells, which were completely abolished by the chelation of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that FCS stimulated [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]i rise solely depending on Ca2+ influx from extracellular medium. The higher concentration of [Ca2+]n and heterogeneous [Ca2+]n rise may have important roles in nuclear-specific cellular responses. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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