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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Behavioral ecology and sociobiology 48 (2000), S. 392-401 
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Keywords: Keywords Female mimicry ; Garter snake ; Mating ; Sexual harassment ; Thamnophis sirtalis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) court and mate in spring, soon after they emerge from large communal overwintering dens in south-central Manitoba. Because of a massive bias in the operational sex ratio, every female attracts intense courtship from dozens to hundreds of males. We suggest that this courtship constitutes significant ”harassment,” because it delays the females’ dispersal from the den and hence increases their vulnerability to predation. Small females may face the greatest costs, because they are less able to escape from amorous males (who court all females, even juvenile animals). Our measurements show that males are stronger and faster than females. Experimental trials confirm that the locomotor ability of females (especially small females) is greatly reduced by the weight of a courting male. Arena trials show that intense courtship stimulates females to attempt to escape. Remarkably, some females that are too small to produce offspring may nonetheless copulate. This precocious sexual receptivity may benefit juvenile females because copulation renders them unattractive to males, and thus allows them to escape more easily from the den. Female ”tactics” to escape male harassment may explain other puzzling aspects of garter snake biology including size-assortative mating, temporal patterns in dispersal from the den, avoidance of communal dens by young-of-the-year snakes, and female mimicry. Hence, sexual conflict may have influenced important features of the mating system and behavioral ecology of these animals.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Keywords: Keywords Predation ; Eulamprus lizard ; Bird selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Lizards and birds are both popular ”model organisms” in behavioural ecology, but the interactions between them have attracted little study. Given the putative importance of birds as predators of diurnal lizards, it is of considerable interest to know which traits (of lizards as well as birds) influence the outcome of a predatory attempt. We studied predation by giant terrestrial kingfishers (kookaburras, Dacelo novaeguineae: Alcedinidae) on heliothermic diurnal lizards (highland water skinks, Eulamprus tympanum: Scincidae), with particular reference to the role of prey (lizard) size. Our approach was twofold: to gather direct evidence (sizes of lizards consumed in the field, compared to those available) and indirect evidence (size-related shifts in lizard behaviour). We quantified the size structure of a natural population of skinks (determined by an extensive mark-recapture program), and compared it to the sizes of wild lizards taken by kookaburras (determined by analysis of prey remains left at the birds’ nests). Kookaburras showed size-based predation: they preyed mainly on small and medium-sized rather than large lizards in the field. However, the mechanism producing this bias remains elusive. It is not due to any distinctive behavioural attributes (locomotor ability, activity level, habitat usage) of the lizards of the size class disproportionately taken by the kookaburras. The greater vulnerability of subadult lizards may reflect subtle ontogenetic shifts in ecological and behavioural traits, but our data suggest that great caution is needed in inferring patterns of vulnerability to predation from indirect measures based on either the prey or the predator alone. Instead, we need direct observations on the interaction between the two.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: body condition ; capital breeder ; energy stores ; foraging ; snake ; Vipera aspis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Before we can quantify the degree to which reproductive activities constitute a cost (i.e., depress an organism's probable future reproductive output), we need to determine the timescale over which such costs are paid. This is straightforward for species that acquire and expend resources simultaneously (income breeders), but more problematical for organisms that gather resources over a long period and then expend them in a brief reproductive phase (capital breeders). Most snakes are capital breeders; for example, female aspic vipers (Vipera aspis) in central western France exhibit a 2- to 3-year reproductive cycle, with females amassing energy reserves for one or more years prior to the year in which they become pregnant. We use long-term mark-recapture data on free-living vipers to quantify the appropriate timescale for studies of reproductive costs. Annual survival rates of female vipers varied significantly during their cycle, such that estimates of survival costs based only on years when the females were ‘reproductive’ (i.e., produced offspring) substantially underestimated the true costs of reproduction. High mortality in the year after reproducing was apparently linked to reproductive output; low energy reserves (poor body condition) after parturition were associated with low survival rates in the following year. Thus, measures of cost need to consider the timescale over which resources are gathered as well as that over which they are expended in reproductive activities. Also, the timescale of measurement needs to continue long enough into the post-reproductive period to detect delayed effects of reproductive ‘decisions’.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arc sec and 3 arc sec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are computed from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G km−1 occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Simultaneous observations of a solar limb flare in the X-ray and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum are presented. Temporal and spectral X-ray observations were obtained for the 25–300 keV range while temporal, spectral, and spatial X-ray observations were obtained for the 30–0.3 keV range. The ultraviolet observations were images with a 10″ spatial resolution in the lines of O v (T e ∼ 2.5 × 105 K) and Fe xxi (T e ∼ 1.1 × 107 K). The hard X-ray and O v data indicate that the impulsive phase began in the photosphere or chromosphere and continued for several minutes as material was ejected into the corona. Impulsive excitation was observed up to 30 000 km above the solar surface at specific points in the flare loop. The Fe xxi observations indicate a preheating before the impulsive phase and showed the formation of hot post-flare loops. This later formation was confirmed by soft X-ray observations. These observations provide limitations for current flare models and will provide the data needed for initial conditions in modeling the concurrent coronal transient.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We describe and analyse observations of an M1.4 flare which began at 17: 00 UT on 12 November, 1980. Ground based Hα and magnetogram data have been combined with EUV, soft and hard X-ray observations made with instruments on-board the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. The preflare phase was marked by a gradual brightening of the flare site in Ov and the disappearance of an Hα filament. Filament ejecta were seen in Ov moving southward at a speed of about 60 km s−1, before the impulsive phase. The flare loop footpoints brightened in Hα and the Caxix resonance line broadened dramatically 2 min before the impulsive phase. Non-thermal hard X-ray emission was detected from the loop footpoints during the impulsive phase while during the same period blue-shifts corresponding to upflows of 200–250 km s−1 were seen in Ca xix. Evidence was found for energy deposition in both the chromosphere and corona at a number of stages during the flare. We consider two widely studied mechanisms for the production of the high temperature soft X-ray flare plasma in the corona, i.e. chromospheric evaporation, and a model in which the heating and transfer of material occurs between flux tubes during reconnection.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We study the response of the chromosphere and transition region to dynamic changes in the photospheric network magnetic fields. We present results from simultaneous measurements taken by TRACE in chromospheric and transition region (C iv) images, high-resolution magnetograms taken by MDI, and spectra of chromospheric (C ii) and transition region lines (O vi) obtained with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Enhanced emission in the C iv line is generally co-spatial with the magnetic pattern in the photosphere. We propose a mechanism of electro-mechanical coupling between the photosphere and upper layers of atmosphere based on hydrodynamic cumulation of energy produced by reconnecting flux tubes in the photosphere/chromosphere region (Tarbell et al., 1999). We believe that a basic process causing energetic events is the cascade of shock waves produced by colliding and reconnecting flux tubes. The continuous supply of flux tubes in the ‘magnetic carpet’ ensures the ubiquitous nature of this process and its imprint on the upper atmosphere. The appearance of bright transients often, but not always, correlates with canceling mixed polarity magnetic elements in the photosphere. In other cases, transients occur in regions of unipolar flux tubes, suggesting reconnection of oblique components. Transients are also seen in regions with no fields detected with the MDI sensitivity; these may be reconnections of tiny features with diameters less than 100 km. Blinkers and other bright transients are often accompanied by two directional plasma jets. These may be generated by cylindrical self-focusing of shock fronts or by collision of shocks produced by neighboring reconnection processes. The observations suggest that stronger emissions correspond to lower velocity jets, and vice versa; this property is a natural consequence of the proposed mechanism. Plasma flows are always seen whenever the slit crosses strong magnetic flux tubes or vertices of converging flows in the supergranular network. The overall energy distribution between heating and plasma flows is an intrinsic feature of our mechanism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 45 (1975), S. 15-23 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal, hydrostatic atmosphere at 20 000 K. The atmosphere is treated as being optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1, 3-1, 3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is non-trivial, and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods, or new implementations of old methods may be tested.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described, including the experiment objectives, system design, performance, and modes of operation. The instrument operates in the wavelength range 1150–3600 Å with better than 2 arc sec spatial resolution, raster range 256 × 256 arc sec2, and 20 mÅ spectral resolution in second order. Observations can be made with specific sets of 4 lines simultaneously, or with both sides of 2 lines simultaneously for velocity and polarization. A rotatable retarder can be inserted into the spectrometer beam for measurement of Zeeman splitting and linear polarization in the transition region and chromosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Measurements of the C iv 1548 Å and Si iv 1393 Å lines made with the University of Colorado Ultraviolet Spectrometer on board OSO-8 show that the mean profiles are redshifted at disk center. Assuming these lines to be optically thin, we measure an apparent average downflow of material in the 50 000 to 100 000 K temperature range which is weighted by the emission measure in these lines. The magnitude of the redshift varies from 6–17 km s−1 with a mean of 12 km s−1 and is persistent at least on the order of months, which is the time covered by the observations presented in this paper. Pneuman and Kopp (1978) have demonstrated that the flux of material associated with this downflow is of the same order of magnitude as the flux of material being carried upward in spicules. Thus, it is possible that material observed to be downflowing in C iv and Si iv has its origins in the upward moving spicule material.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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