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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Streams ; Erosion ; Sediment ; Woody debris ; Channel degradation ; Habitat restoration ; Fish ; Diversity indices
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Channel incision is a widespread phenomenon that results in stream and riparian habitat degradation. Fishes and physical habitat variables were sampled at base flow from three incised stream channels and one reference stream in northwest Mississippi, USA, to quantify incision effects on fish habitat and provide a basis for habitat rehabilitation planning and design. Incised channels were sampled in spring and autumn; the reference channel was sampled only in the autumn. Incised channel habitat quality was inferior to the reference channel despite the presence of structures designed to restore channel stability. Incised channels had physical habitat diversity levels similar to a nonincised reference channel, but contained fewer types of habitat. At base flow, incised channels were dominated by shallow, sandy habitats, moderate to high mean local Froude numbers, and had relatively little organic debris in their beds. In contrast, the reference stream had greater mean water depth, contained more woody debris, and provided more deep pool habitat. Fish assemblages in incised channels were composed of smaller fishes representing fewer species relative to the reference site. Fish species richness was directly proportional to the mean local Froude number, an indicator of the availability of pool habitat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Longitudinal stone toe is one of the most reliable and economically attractive approaches for stabilizing eroding banks in incised channels. However, aquatic habitat provided by stone toe is inferior to that provided by spur dikes. In order to test a design that combined features of stone toe and spurs, eleven stone spurs were placed perpendicular to 170 m of existing stone toe in Goodwin Creek, Mississippi, and willow posts were planted in the sandbar on the opposite bank. Response was evaluated by monitoring fish and habitats in the treated reach and an adjacent comparison reach (willow post planting and standard toe without spurs) for four years. Furthermore, physical habitats within the treated reach were compared with seven reaches protected with standard toe on a single date three years after construction. Overall results indicated that spur addition resulted in modest increases in baseflow stony bankline, water width and pool habitat availability, but had only local effects on depth. These relatively small changes in physical habitat were exaggerated seasonally by beaver dams that appeared during periods of prolonged low flow in late Summer and Autumn. Physical changes were accompanied by shifts in fish species composition away from a run-dwelling assemblage dominated by large numbers of cyprinids and immature centrarchids toward an assemblage containing fewer and larger centrarchids. Biological responses were at least partially due to the effects of temporary beaver dams.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Combinations of vegetation and structure were applied to control streambank erosion along incised stream channels in northwest Mississippi. Eleven sites along seven channels with contributing drainage areas ranging from 12–300 km2 were used for testing. Tested configurations included eroding banks protected by vegetation alone, vegetation with structural toe protection, vegetation planted on re-graded banks, and vegetation planted on regraded banks with toe protection. Monitoring continued for up to 10 years, and casual observation for up to 18 years. Sixteen woody and 13 nonwoody species were tested. Native woody species, particularly willow, appear to be best adapted to stream-bank environments. Sericea lespedeza and Alamo switchgrass were the best nonwoody species tested. Vegetation succeeded in reaches where the bed was not degrading, competition from kudzu was absent, and bank slopes were stabilized by grading or toe protection. Natural vegetation invaded planted and unplanted stable banks composed of fertile soils. Designs involving riprap toe protection in the form of a longitudinal dike and woody vegetation appeared to be most cost-effective. The exotic vine kudzu presents perhaps the greatest long-term obstacle to restoring stable, functional riparian zones along incised channels in our region. (KEY TERMS: vegetation; streambank protection; bioengineering; stream restoration; channel incision; riparian zone.)
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2760
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Channel incision is a pervasive problem that threatens infrastructure, destroys arable land, and degrades environmental resources. A program initiated in 1983 is developing technology for rehabilitation of watersheds with erosion and sedimentation problems caused by incision. Demonstration projects are located in 15 watersheds in the hills of northwest Mississippi. Watershed sizes range from 0.89 to 1,590 km2, and measured suspended sediment yields average about 1,100 t km-2-yr-1. Water quality is generally adequate to support aquatic organisms, but physical habitat conditions are poor. Rehabilitation measures, which are selected and laid out using a subjective integration of hydraulic and geotechnical stability analyses, include grade controls, bank protection, and small reservoirs. Aquatic habitat studies indicate that stone-protected stilling basins below grade-control weirs and habitats associated with drop pipes and stone spur dikes are assets to erosion-damaged streams. Additional recovery of habitat resources using modified stone stabilization designs, woody vegetation plantings, and reservoir outlets designed to provide non-zero minimum flows is under investigation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: index of biotic integrity ; stream ; fish ; erosion ; sediment ; physical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Indices of biotic integrity (1131) were computed for two annual fish collections from 27 locations along the bluffline bordering the Mississippi River alluvial plain in northwestern Mississippi. Study sites exhibited varying degrees of physical habitat degradation due to accelerated channel erosion. Objectives of index application were to quantify existing environmental quality and to test the IBI as a tool for relating fish population characteristics to physical degradation. Physical habitat data were collected concurrently with fish at all sites, and physical habitat descriptors were compared with the IBI scores and component metrics. Three to 23 fish species were captured from each site, and species richness explained 64–70% of the variance in IBI scores. Fish collections were dominated by insectivores tolerant of habitat and water quality degradation. Suckers and piscivores were relatively uncommon. The IBI scores were generally not reflective of physical habitat conditions. Variation in IBI scores was indicative of only the grossest differences in physical habitat quality. Weak relationships between physical habitat quality and IBI scores may have been due to large temporal variations in biotic integrity typical of degraded habitats. Alternatively, water quality degradation, which we did not measure, may have confounded relationships between physical habitat and fish metrics. Regional application of the IBI as a habitat assessment tool in landscapes with widespread physical degradation must overcome lack of suitable reference sites, large temporal variation in IBI scores, and small numbers of fish per collection, leading to lower confidence levels for IBI scores. The scarcity of lightly impacted sites may hinder detection of biotic integrity response along gradients of physical habitat quality.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: stream restoration ; fish ; erosion ; sediment ; physical habitat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Channel incision has major impacts on stream corridor ecosystems, leading to reduced spatial habitat heterogeneity, greater temporal instability, less stream-floodplain interaction, and shifts in fish community structure. Most literature dealing with channel incision examines physical processes and erosion control. A study of incised warmwater stream rehabilitation was conducted to develop and demonstrate techniques that would be economically feasible for integration with more orthodox, extensively employed watershed stabilization techniques (e.g., structural bank protection, grade control structures, small reservoirs, and land treatment). One-km reaches of each of five northwest Mississippi streams with contributing drainage areas between 16 and 205 km2 were selected for a 5-year study. During the study two reaches were modified by adding woody vegetation and stone structure to rehabilitate habitats degraded by erosion and channelization. The other three reaches provided reference data, as two of them were degraded but not rehabilitated, and the third was only lightly degraded. Rehabilitation approaches were guided by conceptual models of incised channel evolution and fish community structure in small warmwater streams. These models indicated that rehabilitation efforts should focus on aggradational reaches in the downstream portions of incising watersheds, and that ecological status could be improved by inducing formation and maintenance of stable pool habitats. Fish and physical habitat attributes were sampled from each stream during the Spring and Fall for 5 years, and thalweg and cross-section surveys were performed twice during the same period. Rehabilitation increased pool habitat availability, and made the treated sites physically more similar to the lightly degraded reference site. Fish communities generally responded as suggested by the aforementioned conceptual model of fish community structure. Species composition shifted away from small colonists (principally cyprinids and small centrarchids) toward larger centrarchids, catostomids, and ictalurids. Fish density and species richness increased at one rehabilitated site but remained stable at the other, suggesting that the sites occupied different initial states and endpoints within the conceptual model, and differed in their accessibility to sources of colonizing organisms. These experiments suggest that major gains in stream ecosystem rehabilitation can be made through relatively modest but well-designed efforts to modify degraded physical habitats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The absorption of sound in air at frequencies from 4 to 100 kHz in 1/12 octave intervals, for temperatures from 255.4 K (0 F) to 310.9 K (100 F) in 5.5 K (10 F) intervals, and at 10% relative-humidity increments between 0% and saturation has been measured. The values of free-field absorption have been analyzed to determine the relaxation frequency of oxygen for each of the 92 combinations of temperature and relative humidity studied and the results are compared to an empirical expression. The relaxation frequencies of oxygen have been analyzed to determine the microscopic energy-transfer rates.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: Acoustical Society of America; vol. 62
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: At audible frequencies, the vibrational relaxation of nitrogen contributes significantly to the absorption of sound in still air. The accurate measurement of the humidity dependence of the relaxation frequency of nitrogen, as yet, has eluded careful measurement due to the difficulty in measuring small absorption at low frequencies. Recently, equipment has been constructed for measuring sound absorption in air as a function of humidity over the frequency range from 4 to 100 kHz. In the experiment described here, the temperature and humidity range of this equipment has been extended so that it can be used to study the relaxation absorption in nitrogen at temperatures from 311 K to 418 K. The results indicate that, over this temperature range, the frequency of maximum absorption in moist nitrogen, f, can be given by f/P = 260 x h, Hz/atm, where h is the percent mole fraction of water, and P is the pressure in atm. To the accuracy of the measurements reported here, f is independent of temperature over the range of temperatures at which the measurements were made.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: Acoustical Society of America; vol. 62
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Equipment had been constructed for measuring sound absorption in the frequency range from 4 to 100 kHz in a large tube 25.4 cm in diameter and 4.8-m long. The technique employs a large moveable solid-dielectric capacitance transducer that completely fills the tube cross section and generates pulses of plane waves. An identical transducer terminates the other end of the tube and serves as a microphone to detect and reflect the sound pulses. Measurements in argon, nitrogen, and air indicate that the attenuation of the sound pulses differs by less than 1% from values calculated for the zero-order mode for frequencies up to 44 times the cutoff frequency for the first 'nonplane' mode. Above that frequency, the measured values are less than those predicted by theory by an amount that is approximately proportional to the wavelength to the -3.1 power. In a smaller tube of similar construction, the high-frequency deviation from theory is absent.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: Acoustical Society of America; vol. 62
    Format: text
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