Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 2340: Primary Frequency Controller with Prediction-Based Droop Coefficient for Wind-Storage Systems under Spot Market Rules Energies doi: 10.3390/en11092340 Authors: Shengqi Zhang Yateendra Mishra Bei Yuan Jianfeng Zhao Mohammad Shahidehpour Increasing penetration levels of asynchronous wind turbine generators (WTG) reduce the ability of the power system to maintain adequate frequency responses. WTG with the installation of battery energy storage systems (BESS) as wind-storage systems (WSS), not only reduce the intermittency but also provide a frequency response. Meanwhile, many studies indicate that using the dynamic droop coefficient of WSS in primary frequency control (PFC) based on the prediction values, is an effective way to enable the performance of WSS similar to conventional synchronous generators. This paper proposes a PFC for WSS with a prediction-based droop coefficient (PDC) according to the re-bid process under real-time spot market rules. Specifically, WSS update the values of the reference power and droop coefficient discretely at every bidding interval using near-term wind power and frequency prediction, which enables WSS to be more dispatchable in the view of transmission system operators (TSOs). Also, the accurate prediction method in the proposed PDC-PFC achieves the optimal arrangement of power from WTG and BESS in PFC. Finally, promising simulation results for a hybrid power system show the efficacy of the proposed PDC-PFC for WSS under different operating conditions.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering