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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Geophysical prospecting 44 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Computational seismic modelling (CSM) plays an important role in the geophysical industry as an established aid to seismic interpreters. Numerical solution of the elastic wave equations has proved to be a very important tool for geophysicists in both forward modelling and migration. Among the techniques generally used in CSM, we consider the finite-element method (FEM) and investigate its computational and visualization requirements. The CSMFEM program, designed for this purpose and developed on an IBM 3090 computer with vector facility, is described in detail. It constitutes a numerical laboratory for performing computer experiments. Two Newmark type algorithms for time integration are compared with other time integration schemes, and both direct and iterative methods for solving the corresponding large sparse system of linear algebraic equations are analysed. Several numerical experiments to simulate seismic energy propagation through heterogeneous media are performed. Synthetics in the form of common shot gathers, vertical seismic profiles and snapshots are suitably displayed, since with the large amounts of data obtained from CSM research, methods for visualization of the computed results must be developed. The FEM is compared with other numerical tools, such as finite-difference and pseudo-spectral methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A rigorous study of velocity dispersion of surface waves generated by teleseismic events propagating across the Iberian Peninsula and traversing main geological units, has been carried out from a set of selected analogue data, as digital records have only become available recently. Dispersed seismic signals have been obtained over a period of 16 years, between 1967 and 1982, at the five Iberian stations having long-period instruments. In our study, we have considered many earthquakes thus obtaining a fairly good path coverage of most of the peninsula for two-station Rayleigh wave velocity measurements. In all cases, the approach azimuths of the wavefronts were carefully checked. Several digital filtering techniques have been employed to remove the effects of multipathing and modal contamination, and to isolate the fundamental mode from Rayleigh wavetrains. Thus, we have obtained good estimates for both phase and group velocities. A time-variable filter has reduced the influence of noise and removed higher mode interference. Multiple filtering is then used to compute group velocity. Frequency-domain Wiener deconvolution is used to compute the interstation phase velocity. The determined average Rayleigh wave velocities reveal differences in the propagation conditions of the seismic energy across the peninsula. A mapping of velocities for various periods of reference, together with a mapping of errors in velocity, are the basis for obtaining the Rayleigh wave velocity distribution in the peninsula. Theoretical 2-D layered earth models are obtained by joint inversion of phase and group velocity dispersion curves using the stochastic inverse operator. In our inversion scheme, we use velocities corrected for anelastic effects. Finally, a 3-D mapping of S velocity is performed. This study shows important regional features of the deep structure of Iberia; we see small lateral inhomogeneities and also two low-velocity layers: one with shear velocities usually ranging from 4.23 to 4.31 km s-1 directly under the Moho, and another, the asthenosphere, with a negative velocity gradient for depths between 81 and 181 km, terminated at the bottom by a sharp discontinuity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Several filtering techniques have been used to remove the effects of multipathing and modal contamination, and to isolate the fundamental mode from Rayleigh wavetrains. Group velocity data are obtained by means of the multiple-filter technique. A time-variable filter has allowed the influence of noise as well as the interference produced by higher modes to be removed. Multiple filtering is then used again to compute group velocities at each station. the interstation group velocity for the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave is estimated according to the velocities at two stations. Frequency-domain Wiener deconvolution is used to compute the phase velocity between two stations. the well-known three-station method is applied to correct the distances travelled by the waves across the array and therefore to determine interstation phase and group velocities in a more accurate manner. On the other hand, lateral refraction at the Atlantic continental edge of the Peninsula is also studied. Phase velocities are corrected for the anelastic effect. Inversion of the interstation Rayleigh wave phase velocities is then made in accordance with generalized inversion theory to obtain theoretical 2-D layered earth models. In this paper, these methods are applied to Rayleigh waves generated by teleseismic events propagating across the Iberian Peninsula and recorded at WWSSN stations. As a consequence, new and principal features for the Iberian lithosphere-asthenosphere system are obtained. A very interesting feature of the the Iberian lithosphere was found-a low-velocity layer directly under the Moho, between 39 and 64 km depth, with shear velocities ranging from 4.12 to 4.37 km s-1. the Iberian asthenosphere, which lies between 100 and 180km depth, is not an homogeneous layer and shows a negative velocity gradient from top to bottom together with a sudden increase in shear velocity beneath the low-velocity zone.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Coda wave analysis is used to obtain frequency-dependent coda-Q values for different seismic zones of the Iberian area. Seventeen source regions around the Geophysical Observatory of Toledo and some four seismic events per region have been considered in this study. We have used an iterative Fourier analysis technique to see the variation of the frequency along the coda, also taking into account the instrument response. We have applied a suitable criterion to select the predominant frequency every 5 s along the coda. The variation of the frequency with time for each region is averaged with a second-degree polynomial, which is compared to master curves obtained directly from the response of the seismograph system, in order to determine the elastic quality factor Q. It has been observed that the frequency-time curves thus obtained are better explained if Q is considered as an exponential function of the peak frequency. The main result of this work is a set of 1 Hz Q values with a clear indication that frequency dependence of Q exists, although the bandwidth from which our conclusions are reached is only 0.5–1 Hz. The coda-Q values obtained for the tectonically most stable areas (north Spain) appear somewhat higher, Q 〉 300, than those corresponding to the seismic active zones (south Spain), Q 〈 250. Thus, a clear relationship is established between Q values and the two major tectonic provinces in Iberia. These results may be helpful for seismic risk and earthquake engineering purposes.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0748-8025
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The object of this work is to analyse the computational aspects of the finite-element method for the elastic wave equations. The necessary numerical techniques are analysed from the point of view of accuracy, performance and storage requirements when implemented in scalar and vector processors with large storage capacity. The method is implemented on an IBM 3090 with vector facility.For this implementation we consider five different time integration schemes (explicit and implicit central difference, Houbolt, constant average acceleration and Wilson), and in the implicit case, both direct (Gaussian decomposition) and iterative (successive over-relaxation, Jacobi semi-iterative, Jacobi conjugate gradient) sparse linear systems solvers. These solvers are taken from the ITPACK2C and ESSL libraries using in each case the adequate representation scheme; skyline, row-wise and compressed diagonal.From our results it is concluded that constant average acceleration and explicit central difference are the most adequate integration methods and Jacobi conjugate gradient is the most efficient solver.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper describes the fundamental principles of the mathematical method used by the authors in discussing the direct geophysical problem of analysing the behaviour of the Atlantic continental margin of the Iberian Peninsula as a transmission medium of seismic energy.In order to resolve this problem, a weak variational formulation is proposed, building up an approximate solution by means of a semidiscrete treatment with the finite element method.The excitation of that non-subductive ocean-continent transition zone is supposed to be caused by Love waves normally incident at the continental boundary. The physical and geometrical parameters describing the model are obtained using as a starting point the experimental data known for this zone.The work shows the main results that we have obtained, the geophysical interpretation of which can be seen in Reference 1. Finally we proposed a large variety of open problems to which analogous techniques can be applied, owing to the extended validity of the proposed method.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1992-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1996-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0016-8025
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2478
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1990-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1992-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
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