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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-01
    Description: Thermokarst (thaw) lakes emit methane (CH4) to the atmosphere formed from thawed permafrost organic matter (OM), but the relative magnitude of CH4 production in surface lake sediments vs. deeper thawed permafrost horizons is not well understood. We assessed anaerobic CH4 production potentials from various depths along a 590 cm long lake sediment core that captured the entire sediment package of the talik (thaw bulb) beneath the center of an interior Alaska thermokarst lake, Vault Lake, and the top 40 cm of thawing permafrost beneath the talik. We also studied the adjacent Vault Creek permafrost tunnel that extends through ice-rich yedoma permafrost soils surrounding the lake and into underlying gravel. Our results showed CH4 production potentials were highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments, which were 151 cm thick (mean ± SD: 5.95 ± 1.67 μg C–CH4 g dw−1 d−1; 125.9 ± 36.2 μg C–CH4 g C−1org d−1). High CH4 production potentials were also observed in recently thawed permafrost (1.18 ± 0.61 μg C–CH4g dw−1 d−1; 59.60± 51.5 μg C–CH4 g C−1org d−1) at the bottom of the talik, but the narrow thicknesses (43 cm) of this horizon limited its overall contribution to total sediment column CH4 production in the core. Lower rates of CH4 production were observed in sediment horizons representing permafrost that has been thawing in the talik for a longer period of time. No CH4 production was observed in samples obtained from the permafrost tunnel, a non-lake environment. Our findings imply that CH4 production is highly variable in thermokarst lake systems and that both modern OM supplied to surface sediments and ancient OM supplied to both surface and deep lake sediments by in situ thaw and shore erosion of yedoma permafrost are important to lake CH4 production.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: A fast and sensitive method for the continuous determination of methane (CH4) and its stable carbon isotopic values (d13C-CH4) in surface waters was developed by applying a vacuum to a gas/liquid exchange membrane and measuring the extracted gases by a portable cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyser (M-CRDS). The M-CRDS was calibrated and characterized for CH4 concentration and d13C-CH4 with synthetic water standards. The detection limit of the M-CRDS for the simultaneous determination of CH4 and d13CCH4 is 3.6 nmol L21 CH4. A measurement precision of CH4 concentrations and d13C-CH4 in the range of 1.1%, respectively, 1.7& (1r) and accuracy (1.3%, respectively, 0.8& [1r]) was achieved for single measurements and averaging times of 10 min. The response time s of 5765 s allow determination of d13C-CH4 values more than twice as fast than other methods. The demonstrated M-CRDS method was applied and tested for Lake Stechlin (Germany) and compared with the headspace-gas chromatography and fast membrane CH4 concentration methods. Maximum CH4 concentrations (577 nmol L21) and lightest d13C-CH4 (235.2&) were found around the thermocline in depth profile measurements. The M-CRDS-method was in good agreement with other methods. Temporal variations in CH4 concentration and d13C-CH4 obtained in 24 h measurements indicate either local methane production/oxidation or physical variations in the thermocline. Therefore, these results illustrate the need of fast and sensitive analyses to achieve a better understanding of different mechanisms and pathways of CH4 formation in aquatic environments.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-11-09
    Description: We assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology, geographic characteristics and permafrost soil types and carbon stocks surrounding lakes. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2 but that the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes near Toolik Field Station and the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with soil carbon stocks adjacent to lakes, concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher carbon stocks and nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-12-09
    Description: Thermokarst (thaw) lakes emit methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, with the carbon (C) originating from terrestrial sources such as the Holocene soils of the lakes’ watersheds, thaw of Holocene- and Pleistoceneaged permafrost soil beneath and surrounding the lakes, and decomposition of contemporary organic matter (OM) in the lakes. However, the relative magnitude of CH4 production in surface lake sediments versus deeper thawed permafrost horizons is not well understood. We assessed anaerobic CH4 production potentials from 22 depths along a 590 cm long lake sediment core from the center of an interior Alaska thermokarst lake, Vault Lake, that captured the entire package of surface lake sediments, the talik (thaw bulb), and the top 40 cm of thawing permafrost beneath the talik. We also studied the adjacent Vault Creek permafrost tunnel that extends through icerich yedoma permafrost soils surrounding the lake and into underlying fluvial gravel. Our results show, in the center of a first generation thermokarst-lake, whole-column CH4 production is dominated by methanogenesis in the organic-rich surface lake sediments [151 cm thick; mean ± SD 5.95 ± 1.67 μg C-CH4 per g dry weight sediment per day (g dw−1 d−1); 125.9 ± 36.2 μg C-CH4 per g organic carbon per day (g Corg−1 d−1)]. The organic-rich surface sediments contribute the most (67%) to whole-column CH4 production despite occupying a lesser fraction (26%) of sediment column thickness. High CH4 production potentials were also observed in recently-thawed permafrost (1.18 ± 0.61 μg C-CH4 g dw−1 d−1; 59.60 ± 51.5 μg CCH4 g Corg−1 d−1) at the bottom of the talik, but the narrow thicknesses (43 cm) of this horizon limited its overall contribution to total sediment column CH4 production in the core. Lower rates of CH4 production were observed in sediment horizons representing permafrost that has been thawed in the talik for longer periods of time. The thickest sequence in the Vault Lake core, which consisted of combined Lacustrine silt and Taberite facies (60% of total core thickness), had low CH4 production potentials, contributing only 21% of whole sediment column CH4 production potential. No CH4 production was observed in samples obtained from the permafrost tunnel, whose sediments represent a non-lake environment. Our findings imply that CH4 production is highly variable in thermokarstlake systems and that both modern OM supplied to surface sediments and ancient OM supplied to both surface and deep lake sediments by in situ thaw, as well as shore erosion of yedoma permafrost, are important to lake CH4 production. Knowing where CH4 originates and what proportion of produced CH4 is emitted will aid in estimations of how C release and processing in a thermokarst-lake environment differs from other thawing permafrost and non-permafrost environments. References: Heslop, J.K.; Walter Anthony, K.M.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Bondurant, A.; Grosse, G. and Jones, M.C. [2015]: Thermokarst lake methanogenesis along a complete talik profile. Biogeosciences, 12:4317–4331, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4317-2015.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-10
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-02
    Description: Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Electronic ISSN: 2515-7620
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-03-24
    Description: Thermokarst (thaw) lakes emit methane (CH4) to the atmosphere formed from thawed permafrost organic matter (OM), but the relative magnitude of CH4 production in surface lake sediments vs. deeper thawed permafrost horizons is not well understood. We assessed anaerobic CH4 production potentials from various depths along a 590 cm long lake sediment core that captured the entire sediment package of the talik (thaw bulb) beneath the center of an interior Alaska thermokarst lake, Vault Lake, and the top 40 cm of thawing permafrost beneath the talik. We also studied the adjacent Vault Creek permafrost tunnel that extends through ice-rich yedoma permafrost soils surrounding the lake and into underlying gravel. Our results showed CH4 production potentials were highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments, which were 151 cm thick (mean ± SD 5.95 ± 1.67 μg C-CH4 g dw−1 d−1; 125.9± 36.2 μg C-CH4 g C−1org d−1). High CH4 production potentials were also observed in recently-thawed permafrost (1.18± 0.61 μg C-CH4g dw−1 d−1; 59.60± 51.5 μg C-CH4 g C−1org d−1) at the bottom of the talik, but the narrow thicknesses (43 cm) of this horizon limited its overall contribution to total sediment column CH4 production in the core. Lower rates of CH4 production were observed in sediment horizons representing permafrost that has been thawed in the talik for longer periods of time. No CH4 production was observed in samples obtained from the permafrost tunnel, a non-lake environment. Our findings imply that CH4 production is highly variable in thermokarst-lake systems and that both modern OM supplied to surface sediments and ancient OM supplied to both surface and deep lake sediments by in situ thaw as well as shore erosion of yedoma permafrost are important to lake CH4 production.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-12-08
    Description: Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominates annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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