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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Pelitic rocks were thermally metamorphosed at the contact of the Chimakurthy mafic-ultramafic igneous complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. The rocks show progressive change in mineralogy from biotite-sillimanite-quartz-garnet-K-feldspar (association I, 150 m from the intrusive contact) to garnet-spinel-cordierite-K-feldspar-sillimanite (association II, 20–30 m from the intrusive contact) to cordierite-K-feldspar-(cordierite-orthopyroxene-K-feldspar symplectite after osumilite)-spinel-FeTiAl oxides with/without garnet (associations III and IV, 5 m from the intrusive contact), and finally to spinel-orthopyroxene-cordierite-K-feldspar (association V, xenoliths). Oxide mineral clots in associations III and IV resemble emery-type rocks. Initial mineral reactions involved biotite-dehydration melting with partial segregation of the melt. Down-temperature mineral reactions were largely diffusion controlled and preservation of symplectitic and coronitic textures in microdomains is common. Interpretation of reaction textures in relevant petrogenetic grids for the sytems KFMASH and FMAS and combined with geothermobarometry suggest that the pelitic rocks were thermally metamorphosed at c. 6 kbar pressure along a heating-cooling trajectory within the temperature interval between c. 750 °C and c. 1000 °C.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Applications of the different formulations of garnet-clinopyroxene geothermometers to crustal granulites and particularly to metamorphosed manganese formations show a wide scatter of estimates. This is primarily related to the uncertainty associated with the formulation of the activity-composition relationship in garnet solid solution besides that in the clinopyroxene solid solution. The largest uncertainty appears to have resulted from the adopted Mg-Mn interaction parameter in garnet which is yet to be experimentally determined. A fresh statistical regression of eleven pairs of garnet and clinopyroxene equilibrated at identical P-T conditions from a manganese formation in India yields W Mg-Mn Gt (=WMn-Mg) value of 1600±500 cal/mols. An extension of the Ellis and Green (1979) geothermometer, known to work well in normal granulites, incorporating terms associated with the activity coefficients of the exchangeable cations, now yields consistent temperature estimation from normal granulites as well as from metamorphosed manganese formations. The geothermometer, however, will not work well for garnet having XFe≥0.65 and clinopyroxenes containing appreciable Na, Al and/or Fe3+.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A new formulation of garnet-biotite Fe−Mg exchange thermometer has been developed through statistical regression of the reversed experimental data of Ferry and Spear. Input parameters include available thermo-chemical data for quaternary Fe−Mg−Ca−Mn garnet solid solution and for excess free energy terms, associated with mixing of Al and Ti, in octahedral sites, in biotite solid solution. The regression indicates that Fe−Mg mixing in biotite approximates a symmetrical regular solution model showing positive deviation from ideality withW FeMg bi =1073±490 cal/mol. ΔH r and ΔS r for the garnet-biotite exchange equilibrium were derived to be 4301 cal and 1.85 cal respectively. The resultant thermometer gives consistent results for rocks with a much wider compositional range than can be accommodated by earlier formulations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Mn silicate-carbonate rocks at Parseoni occur as conformable lenses within metapelites and calc-silicate rocks of the Precambrian Sausar Group, India. The host rocks are estimated to have been metamorphosed at uppermost P-T conditions of 500–550°C and 3–4 kbar. The Mn-rich rocks contain appreciable Fe, reflected in the occurrence of magnetite(1) (MnO 1%), magnetite(2) (MnO 15%) and magnetite(3) (MnO 10%). Two contrasting associations of pyroxmangite, with and without tephroite, developed in the Mn silicate-carbonate rocks under isothermal-isobaric conditions. The former assemblage formed in relatively Fe-rich bulk compositions and equilibrated with a metamorphic fluid having a low X CO 2 (〈0.2), and the latter equilibrated with a CO2-rich fluid. Rhodochrosite+magnetite(1)+quartz protoliths produced the observed mineral assemblages on metamorphism. Partitioning of major elements between coexisting phases is somewhat variable. Fe shows preference for tephroite over pyroxmangite at the ambient physical conditions of metamorphism. Oxygen fugacity during metamorphism was monitored at or near the QFM buffer in tephroite bearing domains, and the fluid composition was buffered by mineral reactions in respective domains. As compared to other metamorphosed Mn deposits of the Sausar Group, the Mn silicate-carbonate rocks at Parseoni were, therefore, metamorphosed at much lower f O 2 through complex mineral-fluid interactions.
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  • 5
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 206: 131-143.
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Available lithological, petrological and geochronological data on the rocks of the Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB), which has a key role to play in any model of Indo-Antarctic correlation in Precambrian and Cambrian times, have been synthesized and interpreted. Longitudinal lithological subdivisions of the belt are mostly not supported by recent geochronological data, which rather suggest a fourfold division based on protolith ages of the ortho- and paragneisses. Mineral ages show prominent tectonothermal events at Mesoproterozoic, Grenvillian and Pan-African times. However, not all of the imprints of all the events are preserved in all the geochronological domains. In the most well-studied Domain II, three phases of metamorphism are recorded -- an early ultra high-temperature metamorphism with an anticlockwise P-T path, a second granulite facies event at c. 1000 Ma, with a retrograde trajectory of near-isothermal decompression, and a third of amphibolite facies. The available information, however, is not conclusive as to whether or not the entire EGB experienced polyphase UHT metamorphism. The propagation of the Grenvillian orogenic front in the EGB is identified.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1993-09-01
    Description: Mn silicate-carbonate rocks at Parseoni occur as conformable lenses within metapelites and calc-silicate rocks of the Precambrian Sausar Group, India. The host rocks are estimated to have been metamorphosed at uppermost P-T conditions of 500–550°C and 3–4 kbar. The Mn-rich rocks contain appreciable Fe, reflected in the occurrence of magnetite_(1) (MnO 1%), magnetite_(2) (MnO 15%) and magnetite_(3) (MnO 10%). Two contrasting associations of pyroxmangite, with and without tephroite, developed in the Mn silicate-carbonate rocks under isothermal-isobaric conditions. The former assemblage formed in relatively Fe-rich bulk compositions and equilibrated with a metamorphic fluid having a low X _CO _2 (〈0.2), and the latter equilibrated with a CO2-rich fluid. Rhodochrosite+magnetite_(1)+quartz protoliths produced the observed mineral assemblages on metamorphism. Partitioning of major elements between coexisting phases is somewhat variable. Fe shows preference for tephroite over pyroxmangite at the ambient physical conditions of metamorphism. Oxygen fugacity during metamorphism was monitored at or near the QFM buffer in tephroite bearing domains, and the fluid composition was buffered by mineral reactions in respective domains. As compared to other metamorphosed Mn deposits of the Sausar Group, the Mn silicate-carbonate rocks at Parseoni were, therefore, metamorphosed at much lower f _O _2 through complex mineral-fluid interactions. ©1993 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1991-03-01
    Description: A new formulation of garnet-biotite Fe−Mg exchange thermometer has been developed through statistical regression of the reversed experimental data of Ferry and Spear. Input parameters include available thermo-chemical data for quaternary Fe−Mg−Ca−Mn garnet solid solution and for excess free energy terms, associated with mixing of Al and Ti, in octahedral sites, in biotite solid solution. The regression indicates that Fe−Mg mixing in biotite approximates a symmetrical regular solution model showing positive deviation from ideality with W _FeMg bi =1073±490 cal/mol. Δ H _ r and Δ S _ r for the garnet-biotite exchange equilibrium were derived to be 4301 cal and 1.85 cal respectively. The resultant thermometer gives consistent results for rocks with a much wider compositional range than can be accommodated by earlier formulations. ©1991 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1989-10-01
    Description: Applications of the different formulations of garnet-clinopyroxene geothermometers to crustal granulites and particularly to metamorphosed manganese formations show a wide scatter of estimates. This is primarily related to the uncertainty associated with the formulation of the activity-composition relationship in garnet solid solution besides that in the clinopyroxene solid solution. The largest uncertainty appears to have resulted from the adopted Mg-Mn interaction parameter in garnet which is yet to be experimentally determined. A fresh statistical regression of eleven pairs of garnet and clinopyroxene equilibrated at identical P-T conditions from a manganese formation in India yields W _Mg-Mn Gt (=W_Mn-Mg) value of 1600±500 cal/mols. An extension of the Ellis and Green (1979) geothermometer, known to work well in normal granulites, incorporating terms associated with the activity coefficients of the exchangeable cations, now yields consistent temperature estimation from normal granulites as well as from metamorphosed manganese formations. The geothermometer, however, will not work well for garnet having X_Fe≥0.65 and clinopyroxenes containing appreciable Na, Al and/or Fe3+. ©1989 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1997-10-28
    Description: Pelitic rocks were thermally metamorphosed at the contact of the Chimakurthy mafic-ultramafic igneous complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. The rocks show progressive change in mineralogy from biotite-sillimanite-quartz-garnet-K-feldspar (association I, 150 m from the intrusive contact) to garnet-spinel-cordierite-K-feldspar-sillimanite (association II, 20–30 m from the intrusive contact) to cordierite-K-feldspar-(cordierite-orthopyroxene-K-feldspar symplectite after osumilite)-spinel-FeTiAl oxides with/without garnet (associations III and IV, 5 m from the intrusive contact), and finally to spinel-orthopyroxene-cordierite-K-feldspar (association V, xenoliths). Oxide mineral clots in associations III and IV resemble emery-type rocks. Initial mineral reactions involved biotite-dehydration melting with partial segregation of the melt. Down-temperature mineral reactions were largely diffusion controlled and preservation of symplectitic and coronitic textures in microdomains is common. Interpretation of reaction textures in relevant petrogenetic grids for the sytems KFMASH and FMAS and combined with geothermobarometry suggest that the pelitic rocks were thermally metamorphosed at c . 6 kbar pressure along a heating-cooling trajectory within the temperature interval between c. 750 °C and c . 1000 °C. ©1997 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-05-01
    Description: In the western part of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), East Indian Shield, borosilicate-bearing veins of variable thickness (tens of micrometers to 1 m thick) are hosted in kyanite-quartzite and kyanite-mica schist. The veins have been classified into three types, which are, from oldest to youngest, generation I (tourmaline), II (dumortierite + tourmaline), and III (tourmaline) veins. Alkali- and Mg-rich tourmaline [XMg = Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.68 {+/-} 0.09; X = Na, Ca, K, {square} (vacancy) = 0.40 {+/-} 0.12] is the sole borosilicate in generation I veins, which have been folded in response to regional deformation. Generation II veins were emplaced along shear bands (1 mm to 1 m thick) developed parallel to the axial planes of these folds. Long axes of fibrous dumortierite and prismatic tourmaline of generation II veins are oriented along the shear bands and have been bent around lenticular remnants of host kyanite-quartzite. Generation III veins have a dendritic pattern, crosscut generation II veins and show aggregates of fibrous to acicular tourmaline. Prismatic tourmaline in generation II veins is optically zoned with a green tourmaline core that is variably replaced and rimmed by blue tourmaline. Fibrous to acicular tourmaline in generation III veins is comprised up of blue tourmaline with compositions similar to the rim composition of prismatic tourmaline in generation II veins. Green and blue tourmaline is aluminous (Al total 〉7 apfu) and alkali-deficient (X = 0.71 {+/-} 0.08). High YAl content, high X, low XMg (0.19 {+/-} 0.10), and excess cation charge indicate tourmaline in generation II veins is rich in an "oxy-foitite" component. Foitite-rich tourmaline in generation III veins has tetrahedral Al and a slightly lower Mg-content and X than those of generation II veins. Optical zoning in prismatic tourmaline corresponds to an abrupt compositional change with paragenetically older green tourmaline having higher Al and XMg, but lower alkali content in the X-site than the blue tourmaline rim. The compositional variation in green and blue tourmaline can be explained by a combination of coupled substitutions represented by AlO[R(OH)]-1 and Al(NaR)-1, where R = (Fe2+ + Mg). Pseudosections in the system Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O constructed from bulk chemical compositions of the studied rocks and the P-T slopes of two isochors computed from brine-rich inclusions trapped in quartz grains indicate that borosilicate formation in generation II and III veins occurred within 4.1 {+/-} 0.5 kbar and 377 {+/-} 21 {degrees}C. The mineral assemblages and textures suggest that the borosilicate-bearing veins formed from infiltration-driven alteration of host kyanite-quartzite and kyanite-mica schist along structurally controlled conduits by more than one batch of chemically distinct boron-rich aqueous fluids.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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