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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 50-53 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A complete solution to explosion protection in facilities processing combustible dusts or flammable gases often involves consideration of dust and gas conveying systems as well as primary process volumes. The pipes or ducts of the conveying system can serve as efficient means of propagating deflagrations from point to point in a plant. Subsequent to the implementation of the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 the need for explosion protection systems on pipes and ducts has increased. VOCs and vapors of hazardous chemicals are commonly incinerated. Such systems are subject to flash back failure and ignition of flammable gases in the feed pipe. Feed bins and product collectors up and down stream are at risk of ignition from sparks generated at grinding stations. Systems feeding dusty solids to furnaces are subject to flash back. This paper summarizes present day methods of detecting pipeline deflagration events and intercepting same using either fast closing valves or chemical barrier systems. Modes of deflagration detection, type and placement of barriers are discussed. The impact of the phase out of the production of halons in this area is also discussed. Examples of combustible dust and flammable gas protection systems are described.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 9-15 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The design and deflagration pressure relief vents is based on correlations developed for various types of combustible materials and for enclosures of different strengths. The primary guideline for deflagration vent design in the US is NFPA 68 Guide for Venting of Deflagrations [5]. That document gives guidance for the design of vents for enclosures containing flammable gases, specifically hydrogen, coke oven gas, propane, and methane. Application of the guide to other gases is achieved using the KG value. Values of KG are published for a relatively small number of gases, as seen in Table D-1 of NFPA 68. This work present KG data on several additional gases obtained in a laboratory scale test vessel along with analysis of the results with respect to published values of fundamental burning velocity.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 11 (1992), S. 182-186 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Halons 1301 and 1211 have been employed widely for over 20 years in a broad array of fire and explosion protection applications. These chemicals, however, have been determined to be environmentally unfriendly due to their high ozone depleting potentials. International treaty, national laws and local ordinances have severely limited the future use of these chemicals. Production in the United States will likely come to an effective halt by 1994. A number of alternative chemicals have been suggested as potential replacements for the halons both in total flooding and streaming agent applications. A comparison of the several viable halon alternatives is made including performance, cost and availability. Areas where new applications data are required are noted.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 8 (1989), S. 147-151 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Deflagration suppression is one of several means of explosion protection for process volumes. This paper presents a discussion of some of the variables which influence the final pressure obtained upon suppression of a process deflagration. In particular the discussion focuses on suppression of the deflagrations of fast burning dusts, i.e. dusts with high Kst values. The discussion is amplified using recently obtained data from deflagration and suppression tests on three flammable dusts representing the St-2 and St-3 deflagration classes. It is shown that the relationship between post-suppression pressure and Kst value is not always as expected. The underlying reason for this result relates to differences in the burning characteristics of the subject dusts in the relevant stages of the deflagration.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Fire technology 28 (1992), S. 332-344 
    ISSN: 1572-8099
    Keywords: halon 1301 ; HBFC compounds ; HCFC compounds ; HFC compounds ; FC compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Notes: Abstract Halon 1301 has served as a be all and end all fire extinguishing chemical for 20 plus years. Its rapid extinguishing action, coupled with its low toxicity, low installed system cost and cleanliness, had made many addicts to its use in place of the traditional not-in-kind alternative approaches (water, carbon dioxide, powders, and foams). Unfortunately for the fire protection community, it, along with all other chlorine and bromine containing halogens, is being phased out of production and use due to its now well established contribution to adverse impact on stratospheric ozone. The history of the theory and experimental verification of ozone depletion and the state of local, national and global regulations pertaining to the control of ozone depleting substances will not be addressed here except for the following observation: The realization by Rowland and Molina in 1973 (published in 1974) that stratospheric chlorine could destroy ozone occurred at around the same time that halon 1301 was becoming a major factor in industrial and commercial fire protection.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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