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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: IAU XXV General Assembly, Symposium No. 217; Jul 01, 2003; Sydney; Australia
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The atomic deuterium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio has been evaluated for the sight line toward the hot O subdwarf BD+28(sup circ) 4211. High signal-to-noise ratio (S/N is approx. 100) observations covering the wavelength range 905 to 1187 angstroms at a wavelength resolving power of lambda/Delta/lambda at approx. 20,000 were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. BD+28(sup circ) 4211 is approx. 00 pc away with a total H I column density of approx. 10(exp 19)/sq cm, much higher than is typically found in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The deuterium column density was measured by analyzing several D I Lyman series transitions (Lyman delta, C, epsilon, eta, theta, iota with curve of growth and profile fitting techniques, after determining which lines were free of interference from other interstellar species and narrow stellar features. The neutral hydrogen column density was measured by an analysis of the Lyman-alpha profile using HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) spectra. The stellar spectrum of BD+28(sup circ) 4211 was modelled to assist in determining the sensitivity of H I (Ly-alpha) and D I to the continuum placement and to identify stellar transitions. The D I and H I column densities, their uncertainties, and potential sources of systematic error will be presented. This work is based on data obtained for the FUSE Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided in part by NASA contract NAS5-32985.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Jan 01, 2001; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Observations obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) have been used to determine the column densities of D I, O I, and N I along seven sight lines that probe the local interstellar medium (LISM) at distances from 37 pc to 179 pc. Five of the sight lines are within the Local Bubble and two penetrate the surrounding H I wall. Reliable values of N(H I) were determined for five of the sight lines from HST data, IUE data, and published EUVE measurements. The weighted mean of DI/H I for these five sight lines is (1.52 +/- 0.08) x l0(exp -5)(1 sigma uncertainty in the mean). It is likely that the D I/H I ratio in the Local Bubble has a single value. The D I/O I ratio for the five sight lines within the Local Bubble is (3.76 +/- 0.20) x 10(esp -2). It is likely that O I column densities can serve as a proxy for H I in the Local Bubble. The weighted mean for O I/ H I for the seven FUSE sight lines is (3.03 +/- 0.21) x 10(esp -4), comparable to the weighted mean (3.43 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp -4) reported for 13 sight lines probing larger distances and higher column densities. The FUSE weighted mean of N I/ H I for five sight lines is half that reported by Meyer et al. for seven sight lines with larger distances and higher column densities. This result combined with the variability of O I/ N I (six sight lines) indicates that at the low column densities found in the LISM, nitrogen ionization balance is important. Thus, unlike O I, N I cannot be used as a proxy for H I or as a metallicity indicator in the LISM.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) intermediate -resolution observations of S III, Si III, Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V absorption along the sight lines to HD 18100 (l = 217.9 deg, b = -62.7, d = 3.1 kpc, z = -2.8 kpc) and HD 100340 (l = 258.9 deg, b = +61.2 deg, d = 5.3 kpc, z = 4.6 kpc) are presented. These small science aperture spectra have resolutions ranging from 11 to 20 km/s full width at half maximum (FWHM) and S/N from 30 to 65 per diode substep. Strong absorption by moderately and highly ionized gas is seen in each direction. The absorption in the direction of the south Galactic polar region (HD 18100) is kinematically simple, while the absorption in the direction of north Galactic polar region (HD 100304) is kinematically complex. In each case the absorption by the highly ionized gas lies within the velocity range of absorption by neutral and weakly ionized gas. Along each sight line, the velocity dispersion determined from the unsaturated absorption lines increases with the energy required to create each ion. The logarithmic column densities for Al III, Si IV, C IV, and N V are log N(atoms/sq cm = 12.71, 13.10, 13.58, and 12.75 toward HD 18100 and log N = 12.88, 13.31, 13.83, and 13.04 toward HD 100340. Average ionic ratios among these species are very similar along the two sight lines. Differences in profile shape between the absorption for AL II, Si IV, C IV, and N V provide additional support for the claim of Savage, Sembach, & Cardelli (1994) that there exists two types of highly ionized gas in the interstellar medium. One type of highly ionized gas is responsible for the structured Si IV absorption and part of the C IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(Si IV) approximately 3.0 and N(C IV)/N(N V) greater than 6. The absorption by this gas seems to be associated with some type of self-regulating interface or mixing layer between the warm and hot interstellar medium. The other type of highly ionized gas is responsible for most of the N V absorption, part of the C IV absorption, and has very little associated Si IV absorption. In this gas N(C IV)/N(N V) is approximately 1 to 3. This gas is hot (T greater than 2 x 10(exp 5) K) and may be tracing the cooling gas of supernova (SN) bubbles or a Galactic fountain. The relative mixture of these two types of highly ionized gas varies from one sight line to the next. The two sight lines in this study sample halo gas in the solar neighborhood and have a smaller percentage of the more highly ionized gas than inner Galaxy sight lines.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 434; 1; p. 145-161
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Mrk 231, the nearest (z = 0.0422) quasar, hosts both a galactic-scale wind and a nuclear-scale iron low-ionization broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) outflow. We recently obtained a far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of this object covering approx. 1150-1470A with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. This spectrum is highly peculiar, highlighted by the presence of faint (〈 or approx.2% of predictions based on H(alpha)), broad (〉 or approx.10,000 km/s at the base), and highly blueshifted (centroid at approx. 3500 km/s) Ly(aplpha) emission. The FUV continuum emission is slightly declining at shorter wavelengths (consistent with F(sub lambda) Alpha Lambda(sup 1.7)) and does not show the presence of any obvious photospheric or wind stellar features. Surprisingly, the FUV spectrum also does not show any unambiguous broad absorption features. It thus appears to be dominated by the AGN, rather than hot stars, and virtually unfiltered by the dusty FeLoBAL screen. The observed Ly(alpha) emission is best explained if it is produced in the outflowing BAL cloud system, while the Balmer lines arise primarily from the standard broad emission line region seen through the dusty (Av approx. 7 mag) broad absorption line region. Two possible geometric models are discussed in the context of these new results.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8650 , The Astrophysical Journal; 764; 1; 1-10
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present high-resolution spectra of the Na I D and Ca II K lines toward 57 late-O and early-B stars along extended (d greater than 1 kpc) low-density paths through the Milky Way disk and halo. The sight lines preferentially sample diffuse gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) along interarm, Galactic center, and high latitude directions. We measure equivalent widths, apparent column densities, and absorption component structure. The Ca II to Na I ratios presented as a function of velocity for each sight line exhibit variations due to elemental depletion, ionization, and density enhancements. Absorption along high latitude sight lines is kinematically simpler than it is along interarm and Galactic center sight lines. Galactic rotation noticeably broadens the absorption profiles of distant stars located in these latter directions. Along several sight lines, we see Ca II absorption at velocities corresponding to large distances (/z/ about 1 kpc) from the Galactic plane. The effects of differences in the Ca II and Na I scale heights and nonzero velocity dispersions are readily apparent in the data. Brief notes are given for several sight lines with interesting absorption properties.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series (ISSN 0365-0138); 100; 1; p. 107-171.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We analyze high-resolution Na I and Ca II interstellar absorption line data obtained in an earlier spectroscopic survey of 57 stars along extended sight lines through the Galactic disk and halo. We find that the Na I lines trace a diffuse cloudy medium and the CA II lines trace both the cloudy medium and a more extended (intercloud) medium. High latitude and interarm sight lines that do not cross spiral arms have clouds that are more diffuse on average than those along sight lines that cross spiral arms. Spiral structure may play an important role in determinating the average absorption properties along extended sight lines and/or interesting physical differences may exist between sight lines that cross spiral arms and those that do not. These might include a harder radiation field and/or higher electron tempertures along the high latitude and 'clean' interarm sight lines. On average, 10% of the Ca II column density occurs at velocities forbidden by the Galactic rotation law by more than 10 km/s. In contrast, only a small precentage of the Na I column density occurs at these velocites. The Ca II to Na I ratio increases by a factor of 15 over forbidden velocities from 0 to 50 km/s and rises rapidly thereafter. A two component model of the Ca II column density per unit velocity over the range l = 325 deg to 360 deg indicates that two distinct distributions exists, one with sigma = 8 km/s and one with sigma = 21 km/s. As much as 60% of the Ca II column density at forbidden velocities may be associated with the faster distribution, which we attribute to warm intercloud material. We estimate expontential scale heights of 0.4-0.5 kpc for the neutral gas traced by the E(B-V), Na I, and H I distributions along the low density sight lines, and we find that Ca II has a larger scale height of 0.8 kpc.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 289; 2; p. 539-558
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-11-17
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1997-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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