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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-76/37
    In: CRREL Report, 76-37
    Description / Table of Contents: Geophysical studies were conducted during September and October of 1975 in northern Maine to locate rock types suitable for construction purposes for the proposed Dickey-Lincoln School Dam Project. Simultaneous airborne magnetometer and VLF electrical resistivity surveys were performed over an area of approximately 920 km2 surrounding the confluence of the St. John and Allagash rivers. The resulting data were used to construct contour maps of apparent resistivity and of total magnetic intensity above the earth's background magnetic field. During the same time period, ground and multi-elevation surveys were performed over a special test sector of known geology. The ground and airborne study in the test sector aided in interpretation of the data by revealing a strong correlation between igneous geology, resistivity, and magnetic intensity. Lack of a similar correlation between resistivity and magnetic data in the remainder of the survey area suggested an absence of additional areas of igneous rocks. The multi-elevation survey of the test area indicated that changes in flight altitude, necessitated by the topographic relief encountered, would not seriously affect the regional resistivity patterns. Although there was no strong evidence of igneous rocks outside the test sector, suitable rock types may exist within the Dss geologic unit (cyclically bedded gray slate and sandstone) in the central part of the main survey area, where most of the high resistivity contours occur.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 24 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 76-37
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Measurement techniques employed Ground Airborne Magnetometer survey Results Ground control study VLF survey Bedrock geology and resistivity Aeromagnetic survey results Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A. Theory of electromagnetic resistivity surveying Appendix B. Magnetic surveying
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Dept. of Defense, Dept. of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-344
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Abstract. - Preface. - Introduction. - Approach and methods. - Results. - Lake morphology. - Elongation. - Orientation. - Percentage cover (density). - Lake classification. - L1 unit. - L2 unit. - L3 unit. - L4 unit. - L5 and Lu units. - Other units. - Lake basin depths. - Ice volume and basin genesis. - Geological implications. - Conclusions. - Selected bibliography.
    Description / Table of Contents: The lakes of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska were classified, based on size, shape, orientation and distribution, into six lake units and three nonlake units. Regional slope and relief were demonstrated to control lake size, the largest lakes occurring on the flattest, northernmost segment of the Coastal Plain. Using ERTS-1 sequential imagery and existing photography and data, lakes were grouped according to three depth ranges, 〈 1 m, 1-2 m and 〉 2 m. Deepest lakes have the longest period of summer ice cover. Ice on shallow lakes melts the earliest. Maximum depths of lakes were computed based on ice volume content of the perennially frozen ground (permafrost) and these agreed with observed values and ranges. The lake classification and regional ERTS-1 coverage also appear to provide additional information on the limits of late-Pleistocene transgressions on the Coastal Plain.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 21 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 344
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, New Hampshire : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/24
    In: CRREL Report, 82-24
    Description / Table of Contents: Velocity data derived from petroleum industry seismic records from Harrison Bay show that high-velocity material ( or = 2 km/s) interpreted to be ice-bonded permafrost is common. In the eastern part of the bay, the depth to high velocity material increases and velocity decreases in an orderly manner with increasing distance from shore until the layer is no longer apparent. The western part of the bay is less orderly, possibly reflecting a different geological and thermal history. This western part may be an inundated section of the low coastal plain characterized by the region north of Teshekpuk Lake, and could have contained deep thaw lakes, creating low velocity zones. Along some seismic lines, the high-velocity material extends approximately 25 km offshore. Two anomalies have been found which could be associated with rapidly degrading permafrost. One is strong attenuation, which was interpreted as an indication of gas in the shallow deposits. The other is the presence of considerable seismic noise, including identifiable small seismic events. The origin of this noise has not been positively established, and it is proposed that it may indicate that some movement is occurring in the sediments due to thaw.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 65 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-24
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Methods Reading records Refractions Reflections Rayleigh waves Spatial resolution Anomalies Results and discussion Seismic velocity distribution Attenuation Low-level natural seismicity Summary Literature cited Appendix A: Error estimates Appendix B: Velocity profiles Appendix C: Seismic cross sections
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/15
    In: CRREL Report, 79-15
    Description / Table of Contents: This report discusses the application of several modern geophysical techniques to groundwater exploration in areas in permafrost. These methods utilize the principles of magnetic induction and radiowave surface impedance in the 10- to 400-kHz band, the techniques of impulse and side-looking radar in the 50- to 10,000-MHz band, and also some optical techniques using imagery obtained from a satellite. Low frequency case studies demonstrate the use of the techniques for detecting free water under an ice cover in shallow, almost completely frozen lake basins, and thaw zones within lake beds, stream channels, and in permafrost in general. The radar studies demonstrate the use of these techniques for determining depth of free water and ice cover thickness on lakes and rivers
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 30 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-15
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Part I. Low frequency resistivity methods Resistivity of earth materials Theory and description of techniques Surface impedance technique Airborne radiowave technique Magnetic induction technique Case studies Location of thaw zones beneath lakes and rivers Location of permeable materials in unfrozen ground Delineating permafrost boundaries Part II. High frequency dielectric methods Dielectric properties of earth materials Theory and description of equIpment Profiling radar Imaging radar Case studies Radar profile of a river channel Impulse radar profile of a freshwater lake SLAR imagery of Arctic lakes Literature cited Appendix A: Satellite imagery for subsurface water exploration
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  • 5
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/23
    In: CRREL Report, 79-23
    Description / Table of Contents: The performance of surface impedance and magnetic induction electromagnetic subsurface exploration techniques was studied seasonally at various sites in Alaska where permafrost and massive ground ice occurred. The surface impedance method, which uses radiowaves in the LF and VLF bands, and the magnetic induction method, which uses low-frequency magnetic induction fields, distinguish subsurface materials by the electrical resistivity of the materials. The methods used have greatest sensitivity within about 20 m of the surface and are, therefore, most applicable for shallow subsurface investigations. The selection of study sites was based on anticipated contrasts in electrical resistivity between ground ice and adjacent earth materials. A magnetic induction instrument, using a separation of 3.66-m between the transmitter and receiver antennas, in general was able to detect near-surface zones of massive ice and to provide data regarding permafrost distribution in both the Fairbanks and Prudhoe Bay areas. At this antenna separation, the depth of magnetic field penetration was sufficient to include mainly the zone containing maximum contrasts in resistivity between ground ice and other earth materials. In the Fairbanks area, contrasts, in this zone were greatest in late winter when the seasonally thawed surface layer was completely frozen. When thawed, this layer usually becomes more conductive and often masks the deeper resistivity contrasts. In the Prudhoe Bay area, maximum ground resistivity contrasts were detected in late summer when shallow subsurface temperatures had risen sufficiently to permit resistivity contrasts between the massive ice and the ice-rich ground to appear.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 24 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-23
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Obiectives and procedures Ground electrical resistivity in permafrost regions Electromagnetic techniques General Magnetic induction method Surface impedance fradiowave method Direct current method General description of field sites Results Site 1 CRREL permafrost station, Fairbanks, Alaska Site 2 Planned road cut for Steese Highway near Fox, Alaska Site 3 Relic floodplain near Fairbanks, Alaska Site 4 Pingos, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Site 5 Ice wedges, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Comparisons between the surface impedance and magnetic induction methods Conclusions and recommendations Literature cited Appendix A. Discussion of the depth of sensitivity of the magnetic induction method using two- and three-layer apparent resistivity curves
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  • 6
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/43
    In: CRREL Report, 82-43
    Description / Table of Contents: The radar signatures of ice wedges and wedge-like structures have been investigated for a variety of soil conditions. The radar used for this study emitted short sinusoidal pulses of about 10-ns duration with an approximate center frequency of 150 MHz. Most of the ice wedges existed at depths of about 1 m in a variety of silty and sandy soils with both frozen and thawed active layers. The position of the wedges was usually identified from corresponding surface features. An artificial ice wedge in coarse-grained alluvium was also profiled as well as wedge-like structures of fine silt in a coarse-grained glacial outwash. All wedges and wedge-like structures produced a hyperbolic reflection profile except when an active layer of thawed, saturated silt was present which eliminated returns from the wedges. The peaks of the hyper-bolas were sometimes masked by reflections from the permafrost table or other material interfaces, and multiple hyperbolas occurred at some sites. The dielectric constant of the host medium was often calculated from the linear portions of the hyperbolas and the results were verified by laboratory time domain reflectometry measurements per-formed on field samples. In some cases, hyperbolic profiles originated at several meters depth suggesting that deep ice wedges could be detected in areas of cold permafrost.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-43
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Objectives and procedures Equipment used Radar TDR Definitions Massive ice Results Artificial wedge: Norwich, Vermont Ice wedges in sand: Fish Creek, Alaska Ice wedges: Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Ice wedges under thawed fine-grained soils: North Slope, Alaska Wedge-like soil structures: Ft. Greely, Alaska TDR measurements Summary and concluding remarks Literature cited Appendix A: Brief discussion of dispersion
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1970-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-4898
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-1204
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1988-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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