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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Experimental simultaneous infections ofAnopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) withNosema algerae (Microsporida: Nosematidae) andPlasmodium yoelli nigeriensis under standardized laboratory conditions showed partial suppression of the malaria parasite. At 9 days after an infective bloodmeal, the oocysts in the midgut were counted; 12.1%–66.6% of the double-infected mosquitoes exhibited no oocysts, whereas only 4.5%–12% of the control group showed no oocysts. The mean reduction in oocyst numbers under the influence ofNosema was 84.68%. At 14 days after infection withPlasmodium, the amount of sporozoites was examined; their mean reduction in eight experiments was 70%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for species differentiation within the Anopheles gambiae complex, we examined several hundred Cameroonian mosquito specimens. Applying an approved routine protocol for DNA extraction and PCR conditions, apart from the indubitable identification of most of the specimens, we came across ten PCR products that did not correspond in length to any of the hitherto known amplification products of the sibling species. Sequencing experiments showed the ten products to be of identical length (117 bp) and nucleotide sequence. The total sequence of the novel product is included in the PCR product specific for A. melas, which is known to occur in the same collection area as the ten unidentifiable mosquito specimens. On alignment of the novel PCR product sequence and the A. melas one starting at the 3"-end primer annealing site, the last 20 nucleotides of the novel product, reflecting the sequence of the 2nd PCR primer, showed only 60% homology with the then-corresponding A. melas DNA site. Explanations for the occurrence of the unusual PCR products are given and discussed.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Empirical economics 16 (1991), S. 233-252 
    ISSN: 1435-8921
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract The present paper examines the role of inventories for the short run adjustment behavior of firms. A theoretical model of a monopolistic firm carrying inventories that includes costs of adjusting output is examined. The model is tested empirically by using business survey data collected by the IFO-Institute, Munich. It is shown, that if data on individual firms are used and econometric estimation techniques are applied that properly take this into account, the estimates derived are fully compatible with the appealing idea of production smoothing by inventories.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Empirical economics 11 (1986), S. 111-123 
    ISSN: 1435-8921
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents some empirical insight into the adjustment behaviour of individual firms that experience a change in demand. Section I briefly outlines recent theoretical approaches to explain the impact of demand variations on firms' price and output decisions. The next section gives a short description of the data used for the subsequent empirical analysis. In section III we explain our methodical procedure. Section IV presents a set of “response functions” that explicitly described the intensity and time pattern of firms' responses with prices, output, and order backlogs to variations of demand. Finally we comment on the limits of the study and summarize the main conclusions we derive from the empirical results.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract By nuclear spin-lattice relaxation of133Cs we studied linear and nonlinear magnetic excitations in the one-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnet CsNiF3. The measurements were performed in the temperature range from 3 to 20 K and with external magnetic fields from 3 to 55 kOe applied perpendicular to the chain direction. Universal dependence on $$\sqrt H /T$$ was obtained forT/T 1. A quantitative interpretation of theT 1 data in terms of two-magnon and soliton contributions could be achieved by considering renormalization effects resulting from magnon-magnon and soliton-magnon interaction as well as from quantum corrections. The instability of solitons due to out-of-plane fluctuations expected in high magnetic fields is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Catharanthus ; elicitors ; PAL ; TDC ; phenols ; alkaloids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cell suspension cultures (cell line No 615) of Catharanthus roseus cv. Little Delicata responded to elicitor treatment by accumulating monoterpenoid indole alkaloids and phenolic compounds. The excretion of phenols into the culture medium resulted from the induction of the branch-point enzyme phenylalanine ammonia lyase. The accumulation of alkaloids, however, occurred several hours earlier than the elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase through which shikimate pathway intermediates are channelled into tryptamine and related indole alkaloids. The results indicate that both pathways for phenol and indole alkaloid biosynthesis responded to elicitor treatment and that no obvious causal relationship between pathways could be deduced from this study.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: acylated anthocyanins ; cinnamic acids ; daucus carota (wild carrot) ; flavonoid intermediates ; HPLC separations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Anthocyanins isolated and characterized from the wild carrot suspension cultures used here were 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-]β-D〈-galactopyranosylcyanidin (1), 3-O-[β-D- xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl]cyanidin (2), 3-O-(6-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-D- xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-]β-D-galactopyranos ylcyanidin (3), 3-O-(6-O-feruoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β- D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-]β-D-galactopyranosylcyanidin (4), 3-O-(6-O-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)- [β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-]β-D-galactopyrano sylcyanidin (5), 3-O-[6-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl)]-β- D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-]β-D-galactopyranosylcyanidin (6), 3-O-[6-O-(3,4-dime- thoxycinnamoyl)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-]β-D-galactopyranosylcyanidin (7), 3-O-[(6-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranosyl]cyanidin (8), and 3-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)cyanidin (9). Except when cinnamic acids were provided in the culture medium, the major anthocyanin present in the two clones examined was 2. When the naturally occurring and some non-naturally occurring cinnamic acids were provided individually in the medium, 1 and 2 were minor components and the anthocyanin acylated with the supplied cinnamic acid, namely 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 was the major anthocyanin present in the tissue. When caffeic acid was provided the major anthocyanin in the tissue was 4, thereby suggesting that the caffeic acid was methylated before its use in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Other cinnamic acids supplied had limited effects on the anthocyanins accumulated and appeared not to result in the accumulation of new anthocyanins by the tissue. Thus the tissue can use some but not all analogues of sinapic acid to acylate anthocyanins. Additional anthocyanins were detected in extracts of the wild carrot tissue cultures using mass spectrometry (both MS/MS and HPLC/MS). The additional compounds detected have also been found in cultures of black carrot, an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota ssp. sativa and the flowers of wild carrot giving no evidence for qualitative differences in the anthocyanins synthesized by subspecies, cell cultures from subspecies, or clones from cell cultures. There are major differences in the amounts of individual anthocyanins found in cultures from different subspecies and in different clones from cell cultures. Here anthocyanins without acyl groups were usually found in the tissues and their accumulation is discussed. On the basis of the structures of the isolated anthocyanins, a likely pathway from cyanidin to the accumulated anthocyanins is proposed and discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 83 (1998), S. 6196-6198 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Measurements of the linear absorption and the nonlinear absorption due to the bleaching of the excitonic resonance have been used to determine the band-gap reduction and valence-band splitting in spontaneously ordered GaInAs/InP. Tilts of the substrate ranging from 2° to 15° towards {111}B, different growth rates and temperatures have been used to produce a series of samples containing various degrees of ordering. Best sample quality including small x-ray and photoluminescence linewidth as well as low temperature luminescence from the band edge was obtained using a substrate tilted 6° towards {111}B. The ratio between ordering induced band-gap reduction and crystal-field splitting was found to be ζ=1.8±0.4. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 71 (1997), S. 2127-2129 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Spontaneously ordered Ga0.47In0.53As grown on substrates with the (001) surface tilted 4° towards {111}B are studied using spectroscopic methods as well as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction and dark-field transmission electron microscopy. The single variant ordering is proved by the absence of one class of the ordering induced 〈fraction SHAPE="CASE"〉12{111}B superlattice spots in transmission electron diffraction patterns as well as by the tilted polarization of the photoluminescence emerging from the samples cleaved edge. The temperature dependence of the luminescence peak position shows an anomalous behavior at low temperatures and a strong dependence of the peak position on the excitation power. From low temperature absorption measurements, we find a band gap reduction of 37 meV and a valence band splitting of 13.2 meV. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Parasitology research 39 (1972), S. 69-70 
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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