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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary DNA fingerprinting with two minisatellite (33.15, M13) and two simple repeat probes [(GACA)4, (CAC)4/ (GTG)5] was performed to screen for somatic changes in the DNA from various solid human tumours in comparison with constitutional DNA from the same patient. Loss of bands or changes in band intensitities were observed. Together the probes 33.15 and (CAC)5/(GTG)5 detected deviating fingerprint patterns in 63% of the colorectal carcinomas investigated. In mammary and stomach carcinomas, only 1/11 and 2/11 tumours, respectively, showed differences with either of the three probes, 33.15, (GACA)4 and (CAC)5/(GTG)5.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Epistasis ; Genotype x environment inter-actions ; Forage maize breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Three-way cross means were predicted with formulae involving linear functions of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects estimated from single-cross factorials between genetically divergent populations. Data from an experiment with 66 single-cross and 66 three-way cross forage maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids was used for comparing the prediction formulae. The genotypic correlation (r) between observed and predicted three-way crosses increased with increasing χ, the weighting factor of SCA effects, for plant height and ear dry matter (DM) content. It displayed slightly convex curves for total and stover DM yield, ear percentage, and metabolizable energy content of stover. For Jenkins' method B, r was considerably less than 1.0 for all traits, indicating the presence of epistasis. The square root of heritability (hĜ) of the predicted means decreased with increasing χ, the reduction being small with a greater number of test environments. Using the product r·hĜ as a criterion of efficiency, none of the prediction methods was consistently superior and the differences among them were rather small (〈 7.5%) for all traits, irrespective of the number of test environments. We recommend evaluating the GCA of a greater number of lines from each parent population in testcrosses with a small number of elite lines from the opposite population. All possible three-way or double crosses between both sets of lines should be predicted by Jenkins's method C. This procedure allows one to select with a higher intensity among the predicted hybrids and thus should increase the genetic gain.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The importance of epistasis for forage performance and quality traits was studied in early maturing European maize (Zea mays L.) breeding materials. Sixty-six three-way crosses (3W), 33 of the flint x (dent · dent) and 33 of the dem × (flint · flint) type, were compared with the mean of their respective non-parental single crosses (〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01799541:PBR185:PBR_185_mu1" location="equation/PBR_185_mu1.gif" extraInfo="missing"/〉) using data obtained in six environments. For each of the 11 traits examined, at least 6 out of the 66 three-way crosses displayed significant (P 〈 0.05) epistatic deviations, calculated as 〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01799541:PBR185:PBR_185_mu1" location="equation/PBR_185_mu1.gif" extraInfo="missing"/〉– 3W. Averaged over crosses and environments, epistatic deviations were highly significant (P 〈 0,31] for 8 trails, but of minor importance except for grain yield. In general, the variance of epistatie deviations was appreciably smaller than the variance of genotype × environment interactions. Highly significant correlations occurred among epistatie deviations for silking date, dry matter content of ear, and dry matter yield of grain and stover. The reliability of predicting the performance of three-way crosses from 2W as opposed to assessing them directly was investigated as a function of the number of test environments. Disturbing e fleets of epistasis on prediction only became important under intense testing (〉 3 or 4 environments), With fewer test environments, both procedures were almost equivalent, due to a smaller influence of genotype × environment interaction on the 〈inlineGraphic alt="inline image" href="urn:x-wiley:01799541:PBR185:PBR_185_mu1" location="equation/PBR_185_mu1.gif" extraInfo="missing"/〉 values, Epistasis is concluded to be of minor importance with regard to the optimum type of hybrid for forage use.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Eleven flint inbreds of maize were crossed with 11 dent inbreds according to a balanced incomplete factorial mating design to produce 66 single crosses (2W) in both reciprocal forms. Additionally, six three-way crosses (3W) were also produced in both reciprocal forms. These hybrids were evaluated for 11 forage yield and quality traits in 1983 and 1984 at three sites in Germany. Highly significant reciprocal differences were observed for nine traits in the 2W. The respective variance component estimates amounted to 2–33% of the variance component due to crosses. On average, flint × dent 2W had lower dry-matter content (DMC) than dent × flint 2W and a 1 % greater dry-matter yield (DMY) of forage. Three-way crosses produced on singles exhibited greater DMC (3%) and DMY (5%) of the ear, metabolizable energy content (MEC) of stover (1%), and DMC and DMY of forage (2%) than their reciprocal forms produced on lines. Based on this study, because of their minor importance, routine testing for reciprocal differences among 2W hybrids is not recommended.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Maize varieties with improved nitrogen(N)-use efficiency under low soil N conditions can contribute to sustainable agriculture. Tests were carried to see whether selection of European elite lines at low and high N supply would result in hybrids with differential adaptation to these contrasting N conditions. The objective was to analyze whether genotypic differences in N uptake and N-utilization efficiency existed in this material and to what extent these factors contributed to adaptation to low N supply. Twenty-four hybrids developed at low N supply (L × L) were compared with 25 hybrids developed at high N supply (H × H). The N uptake was determined as total above-ground N in whole plants, and N-utilization efficiency as the ratio between grain yield and N uptake in yield trials at four locations and at three N levels each. Highly significant variations as a result of hybrids and hybrids × N-level interaction were observed for grain yield as well as for N uptake and N-utilization efficiency in both hybrid types. Average yields of the L × L hybrids were higher than those of the H × H hybrids by 11.5% at low N supply and 5.4% at medium N level. There was no significant yield difference between the two hybrid types at high N supply. The L × L hybrids showed significantly higher N uptake at the low (12%) and medium (6%) N levels than the H × H hybrids. In contrast, no differences in N-utilization efficiency were observed between the hybrid types. These results indicate that adaptation of hybrids from European elite breeding material to conditions with reduced nitrogen input was possible and was mainly the result of an increase in N-uptake efficiency.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Selection indices were calculated for simultaneous improvement of relevant forage maize traits. Beside indices based on primary traits [metabolizable energy yield (MEY) and content (MEC), crude protein content (CPC)] determined either in vitro or by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS), we calculated indices based on secondary (five agronomic) traits. The required phenotypic and genotypic covanance matrices were estimated from a series with 120 maize hybrids tested at three sites. Base index, heritability index, optimum index, and restricted index showed only minor differences in the expected gain in total economic worth (ΔH) for the present agricultural conditions in Germany. CPC was the least important primary trait; selection for grain yield, the most suitable secondary trait, resulted in greater ΔH values than any other index. Harvesting the whole plant and subsequently determining MEC by NIRS was the most economic selection procedure with increased economic weighting for MEC at high animal performance levels. In the latter situation, we recommend grain yield trials as a pretest in breeding programmes and official performance trials for variety registration.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird eine Arbeitsweise zur Herstellung lichtelektrischer Emissionsbilder angegeben, welche auch bei tieferen Temperaturen die Kristallstruktur von Nickeloberflächen durch Bariumbedampfung sichtbar macht. Zusätzlich zu der bekannten glühelektrischen Methode der elektronenoptischen Abbildung besteht durch diese Methode heute die Möglichkeit, von Zimmertemperatur bis zur Schmelztemperatur der höchst schmelzenden Metalle elektronenoptische Kristallstrukturbilder zu erzeugen.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Key engineering materials Vol. 56-57 (Jan. 1991), p. 189-204 
    ISSN: 1013-9826
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In the antimycin-resistant mutantana r-8 of the fission yeastSchizosaccharomyces pombe (Sch.p.) spontaneous mutants were isolated showing high resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin. All mutants were resistant to the structurally related antibiotic neomycin. Tetrad analysis, mitotic segregation analysis, and mitotic haploidization revealed extrachromosomal, very likely mitochondrial inheritance. In contrast to the rapid segregation of mitochondrial markers in zygotic clones ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae (S.c.) the heteroplasmic state of diploids proved to persist for at least 50 generations after zygote formation. Stationary cultures of the paromomycin-resistant mutantspar r-106 andpar r-112 contain up to 6% respiratory-deficient mutants, but no reversion to paromomycin-sensitivity was observed among 1700–1800 colonies tested. The ability of mutantana r-8 to produce spontaneously respiratory-deficient mutants could be separated from the antimycin-resistant phenotype ofana r-8.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Spontaneous chloramphenicol (cap r)- and erythromycin (ery r)-resistant mutants were isolated from strain ade7–50 h - and the antimycin-resistant mutant ana r-8 ade 7–50 h- of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sch. p.). By mitotic segregation analysis all 154 cap r- and 120 ery r-mutants derived from ade 7–50 h - proved to be recessive chromosomal, whereas all 108 cap r- and 200 ery r-mutants originating from ana r-8 were extrachromosomally inherited. The rate of spontaneous cap r- and ery r-mutants was about hundredfold in ana r-8 compared to ade 7–50 h -. Growth of cap r-and ery r-mutants was not inhibited by chloramphenicol or erythromycin, respectively, in glucose-medium and only slightly in glycerol-medium at concentrations which completely inhibited ana r-8. By mitotic segregation-, tetrad-, and mitotic haploidization-analysis the extrachromosomal inheritance of mutants derived from ana r-8 was established. Segregational patterns of cap r- and ery r-determinats during mitosis, meiosis, and mitotic haplidization of diploids are discussed.
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