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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: After entering aquatic ecosystems, heavy metals accumulate in the organs and tissues of aquatics including fish and finally enter the food chain. These heavy metals can enter the human body through eating contaminated fish. Absorbance values and accumulation of heavy metals in aquatics especially the fish depend on ecological conditions, physical, chemical and biological factors of water, the element type, and the physiological state of the aquatic (Oryan et al., 2010). Among aquatic ecosystems, wetlands and rivers are considerably important from the point of ecology. Rivers act as carriers of nutrients and non–nutrients and wetlands act as sinks for these substances. Now this effect will be more apparent if the wetland is an intermediary between a river and a static ecosystem. The Anzali Wetland is the type of ecosystem that embraces water from 11 rivers from one side and passes water into the Caspian Sea through a second outlet on the other side. The rivers passing through urban and rural areas and forests carry different types of organic matter, minerals, sediment, and industrial sewage (Taheri, 2013). The Anzali Wetland is one of the valuable wetlands registered in the Ramsar International Convention the contamination of which has become the main challenge for the people and officials during the past two decades (Khosravi, 2011).
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-15
    Description: The processing and comparison of quality of meat in farmed Acipenser persicus using two methods of dry and mix salting was carried out to provide a new formula for processing new sturgeon products. Ten fish specimens with a mean weight and length of 2 kilograms and 60cm that were farmed for two years were used in this study. The meat of the specimens was processed using pure salt and a mixture of salt and one percent madder. Two replicates were used for each method. In the first method, dry sodium chloride was used at a rate of 250g of sodium chloride per kilogram body weight of fish (dry salting). In the second method, about 10g of madder was added to the 250g of sodium chloride (mix salting). Microbial examinations included total bacterial counts, Staphylococcus and Coliform bacteria assessment and chemical examinations included salt, protein and fat absorption, TVN, peroxide, and pH tests. Sensory tests as well as microbial and chemical experiments were carried out for the quality control of the processed samples for a period of three months. According to the results, Iranian National Standard and pure plate culture method (10 ^ (-1), 10 ^ (-2) and 10 ^ (-3)) Coliform counts in the two different meat samples was lower than 10 per gram of meat. The total bacterial count and the Staphylococcus bacteria count was higher in the meat samples processed with dry salting. Besides, the rate of salt absorption and peroxide was lower in these samples. The protein, fat, pH and humidity were higher in the samples treated with dry salting. However, taste, flavor and color of the meat processed with a mixture of sodium chloride and madder was higher quality than that processed with dry sodium chloride. No significant differences were observed in chemical factors such as TVN and salt absorption for the two processing methods. This was also the case for microbial analysis including bacterial counts such as Staphylococcus and total bacterial count.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: This project was carried out to increase shelf life of kilka and prevent color changes during cold storage. Edible film made by sodium alginate (0.5% concentration) was used for fish packaging at time zero. The covered samples were kept at -18°C. Examination were carried out for a period of six months. Coliform, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas bacteria contamination were negative until the end of storage period in the covered samples. Total bacterial counts and Acetaphylococcus bacteria count were lower in the treated samples (2.93 and 1.46log cfu/g, respectively) compared with the control specimens (3.21 and 2.28log cfu/g, respectively). Chemical factors consisting of humidity, protein, lipid, ash and calorie were higher in the treated samples (73.34%, 18.96%, 4.62%, 2.88% and 134. 63% kcal/kg, respectively) compared with the control samples (59.43%, 18.04%, 4.03%, 2.87% and 108.43% kcal/kg, respectively) and fresh fish samples (73.93%, 18.91%, 4.59%, 2.87% and 117.28% kcal/kg, respectively). Free fatty acids (0.77 and 9.21g/100), thiobarbitoric acid (0.001 and 0.15mg/kg), peroxide value (0.06 and 3.75meq/kg oil), TVN (6.92 and 16.28mg/100g) and pH (6.34 and 6.91) were lower in the treated samples compared with the control samples. However, no statistically significant decreases were observed in chemical factors including moisture, peroxide value, TVN and pH in the covered samples compared with the control samples during cold storage (P〉0.05). According to the statistical analyses of sensory specifications including taste, odor, color, tissue and total acceptance, there was a significant difference between the covered samples and the control ones (P〈0.05). Using the results of bacterial, chemical and sensory tests and statistical analyses, the covered samples had a favorable quality until the end of storage period. Also, based on the results of sensory analyses and moisture test, the control samples had a favorable quality for a period of three months.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-07
    Description: The aim of this study was investigated to produce of new product using by Caspian Sea Anchovy (Kilka) with different sensory and textural properties .To achievement this purpose, breaded kilka was coated ( row and fried) using with common and Tempora batter. For determination of quality assessment and shelf life, samples were stored at freezer (-18°C). Results showed that frying of Breaded kilka affect total fat content and moisture, so that significant reduction in moisture value and increase in fat content of fried kilka was found in compared with raw breaded kilka (p〈0.05). Protein content of both treatments in compared with fresh fish meat was significantly different. Comparison of four treatments showed that a significant increase in the amount of peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acids in fried kilka samples which indicates high fat oxidation during the frying process. Also total count of microrganisms and Coliforms was reduced after frying process. According to ICMSE Standard, all of samples had a high quality at processing time. According to the results, using of Tempora batter improved sensory properties of breaded kilka. Difference of taste, tenderness and adhesiveness of two types of batter in products was significant (p〈 0.05) as the sensory properties of breaded kilka with Tempora batter in compared with common batter were high in different phase of storage. with due attention to progressing of oxidative deterioration in breaded kilka at forth months after production and decreased of sensory properties, we found that the shelf life of row , fried breaded kilka was 3 month at frozen condition (-18°C).
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium alginate edible coating with concentrations of 0/25, 1/25, 0/75 and 1/75% (W/V) on chemical changes of dressed Kilka during frozen storage. Prepared samples of Kilka fish have been coated for 1 h with the dipping method. Coated and uncoated samples have been packed in polyethylene dishes with selphon coverage (75 packs of 250 g). Chemical parameters (moisture, ash, protein, TVN and lipid) were examined in frozen storage at -18ºC for 4 months. SPSS Statistical Software was used for data analysis, using One Way ANOVA test. Significant reduction was found (P〈0.05) in moisture value with increase of sodium alginate concentration during the study. Significant differences were found in TVN values during the third and fourth months but there were no significant differences (P〈0.05) in ash and protein content. The highest content of TVN was found in control samples and use of sodium alginate edible coating affected the reduction of TVN, prevented the lipid oxidation, increased the shelf-life of Kilka and reduced the moisture.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: The objective of current study was to investigate the effects of whey protein coating on the quality of common kilka during frozen storage period. For this study, common kilka was coated with 12% whey protein concentration. Also, non-coated kilka was used as a control sample. Coated and non-coated samples were then stored at -18°C for six months. Bacterial, chemical and sensory properties of the samples were determined in each month. Results showed that total bacterial counts and Staphylococcus bacteria count were lower in the test samples compared to the control samples. Coliform, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas bacterial contamination were negative till the end of the storage period in the covered samples. Chemical factors consisting of humidity, protein, lipid, ash and calories were higher in the test samples compared to the control samples. Peroxide value, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acid, TVB-N and pH were lower in the test samples. Sensory tests had a better quality in the test samples compared to the control samples. No statistically significant decreases were observed in chemical factors in the covered samples compared to the control samples (p〈.05). In sensory specifications, there was a significant difference between the covered samples and the control samples (p〈.05). According to the results of experiments and statistical analysis, the covered samples had a favorable quality till the end of the storage period but the control samples had lost their quality.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Description: This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of heavy metals (Co and Ni) in the edible tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and comparison with international standards of FAO and FDA. Samples were caught from the West, Centre and East part of Anzali Wetland in autumn of 2012. Accumulations of heavy metals were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The level of nickel in the West, Centre and East part of Anzali wetland was in permissible range. Cobalt was not observed in carp fish of western wetland. But, concentration of cobalt was not showed any significant differences compared with standard levels of FDA and FAO in East and Centre parts of wetland (p〉0.05). The results showed that there were not significant differences of the cobalt and nickel in the tissues of carp among stations (p〉0.05). According to the results, carp which caught from Western, Central and Eastern part of Anzali Wetland are suitable for human consumption.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: The present project was aimed at determining the content, quality, and purity of β-carotene extracted from Azolla filiculoides in the Anzali Wetland, comparing it with synthetic β- carotene, and measuring its economic value. One treatment had β-carotene derived from Azolla filiculoides in the Anzali Wetland through the alkaline hydrolysis method in the summer of 2014. Treatments were kept at 4 °C for one year. Synthetic β-carotene was used as the control. The quality of the treatments was assessed by applying some chemical tests, including the measurement of the content and quality of β-carotene, colorimetry using the Hunter-LAB method, determination of the purity and vitamin A employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), estimation of the dwell-time duration at 5 °C, and measurement of the solubility of β-carotene in water. The results of the tests regarding the purity, concentration, colorimetry, vitamin compounds, dwell time, and solubility in the experimental β-carotene, compared with those in the control, revealed no significant difference (p〉0.05). Moreover, the factors showed no significant difference between the control and experimental treatments during the dwell time (p〉0.05). The natural β-carotene had a good quality during the storage period at 5 °C for one year. Since there was no significant difference between the β-carotene derived from Azolla filiculoides and the synthetic one in terms of the chemical tests, purity, and dwell time, and since the natural β- carotene derived from Azolla filiculoides takes precedence over the synthetic one in terms of the economic value, it is recommended that natural β-carotene extracted from Azolla filiculoides be substituted for synthetic β-carotene in the food industry.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: This project was carried out in order to increase the shelf life of Kilka Fish and prevent color changes during cold storage. Edible film made of sodium alginate (1% concentration) was used for fish packaging. This project was carried out in four treatments and in triplicates. Treatments were coated samples at intervales times of 0, 2 and 4 hours shelf life in sodium alginate solution and uncoated Kilka (control samples). The coated and control samples were kept at -18 oC. Examinations were carried out for a period of six months. Examination was conducted on 21 packs from each treatment on day 1 after processing and from first month untill sixth month after processing. Total bacterial counts and Staphylococcus bacteria count were lower in the coated samples compared to the control samples. Coliform, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas bacteria contamination were not observed until the end of storage period in the coated samples. Moisture was less in the coated samples at time = 0 and was highest in the coated samples at time = 4 hour. Peroxide value, free fatty acids, thiobarbitoric acid, TVN and pH were higher in coated samples at time = 0 compared with other samples and in coated samples at time = 4 were lower compared with other samples. Statistically significant (p〈0.05) decreases were observed in the coated and control samples during cold – storage. Sensory analysis carried out based on ranking method. Over all there was a significant difference (p〈0.05) between the coated samples and control ones. The coated samples at time = 0 had the best quality. The coated samples at time= 4 hour had lower quality. According to the results, the coated samples had good quality until the end of storage period. Based on the results of sensory analysis the coated samples maintained quality for a period of three months.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: Fish soup powder is produced from three kinds of fish in Chabahar catched in Oman sea white flesh of many low value fish like threadfin bream, perches etc. can be used to prepare instant fish soup powder. This product has a high consumer acceptability in many countries in this research project we used 4 low value fishes with local name of Sarm, Chaman, Aroos and Talal belonging to families Carangidea, Lethrinidea, Drepanidae and Scombroidea. soup powder packed in laminated pouches and the shelf life of it is one year in ambient temperatures. The quality used to be good up to 6 month but after this time the quality decreases gradually. The experiment on fish soup showed that the percentage of protein was 32 percent, fat 11 percent and humidity 12 percent and ash 4 percent. The experiment conducted on fish soup powder was peroxide, total microbial count, organoleptic test for 6 month.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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