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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: indomethacin ; diflunisal ; pharmacokinetics ; drug interaction ; adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The single-dose pharmacokinetics of indomethacin following 100 mg rectally was measured in two groups of 8 healthy subjects before and after diflunisal 500 mg p.o. once daily, or 500 mg in the morning and 1000 mg in the evening, until steady state conditions were reached. A further group of 8 healthy subjects was given 50 mg indomethacin rectally before and after diflunisal 500 mg p.o. twice daily. High dose diflunisal (1500 mg/day) decreased the renal clearance of indomethacin from 21.9 to 1.8 ml/min (92%) and reduced the renal excretion of both unchanged (63%) and conjugated (82%) indomethacin. The apparent total body clearance (0.12 l/h/kg), apparent volume of distribution (0.98 l/kg), and volume of distribution at steady state (0.80 l/kg) were decreased by 47%, 35% and 30%. The maximum plasma concentration (2.4 µg/ml) and total area under the curve (13.0 µg × h/ml) were increased by 40% and 119%, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (5.7 h) and mean residence time (6.7 h) were slightly prolonged (7.0 h and 8.8 h) in the presence of diflunisal. The contribution of metabolism to the overall elimination of indomethacin was increased by only 2%. Similar results were obtained when the subjects were challenged with the low dose of diflunisal (500 mg/day), although the magnitude of the changes were smaller. The interaction between indomethacin and diflunisal may be due to competition both at the metabolic (conjugation) and the excretory (tubular secretion) levels. When the subjects were given 50 mg indomethacin and diflunisal 1000 mg/day simultaneously, the achieved maximum plasma concentration of indomethacin (2.53 µg/ml) was comparable to that seen after 100 mg in the absence of diflunisal (3.1 µg/ml), but the AUC was greater (21.7 µg × h/ml vs 13.0 µg × h/ml). Adverse central nervous reactions were more frequent and more pronounced at higher plasma indomethacin concentrations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: paracetamol ; suppository ; tablets ; bioavailability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relative bioavailability of a new paracetamol suppository (Panodil) and tablets in doses of 0.5 and 1 g was investigated in eight healthy subjects. The tablets were absorbed faster and higher peak plasma concentrations were obtained than after the suppositories. The bioavailability of the suppositories was approximately 80% of that of the tablets at both dose levels. There was no indication of capacity-limited elimination at either the two doses investigated.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Methotrexate ; Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis ; pharmacokinetics ; age dependence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) have been reported to require higher doses (per kg body weight) of methotrexate (MTX) than adults with rheumatoid arthritis to control their disease. The purpose of the present study was to characterise the plasma pharmacokinetics of MTX and its major metabolite, 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OHMTX) in children, and to compare the results with those previously obtained in adults. Thirteen patients (age 5–16 y) with JRA (median disease duration 5.5 y) were studied after once weekly oral administration of MTX (median 0.21 mg·kg−1). The analytical method was sufficiently sensitive to permit determination of plasma and urinary concentrations of MTX and 7-OHMTX during the entire dose interval in most of the patients. The dose normalized area under the plasma concentration versus time-curve (AUC) of MTX increased with the age of the children and was lower than previously found in adults. The dose normalized AUC of 7-OHMTX was not dependent on age. No correlation was found between the AUCs of MTX and 7-OHMTX. The results suggest that the age-dependence of the pharmacokinetics of MTX might explain the observation that at least some children require higher doses of MTX than adults to obtain a sufficient therapeutic effect.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Asthma ; Methotrexate; steroid-sparing effect ; blood levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and adverse effects of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of severe chronic asthma in 12 patients with severe asthma requiring continuous treatment with oral steroids at the Outpatient Department of Helsinki University Central Hospital. The study was a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methotrexate treatment 15 mg weekly on a crossover basis over 24 weeks. During the 2 weeks baseline phase the mean dose of oral steroids administered was 10.9 (3.2–28) mg ⋅ day−1, and the mean dose of inhaled steroids administered was 2.3 (1.6–3.2) mg budesonide or beclomethasone. The average dose of oral steroids administered was 12.8 mg ⋅ day−1 during the last 2 placebo weeks but only 7.9 mg ⋅ day−1 during the last 2 weeks with MTX treatment. The reduction in daily dose of oral steroids was 38%, while daily bronchodilator use was reduced by 22%. During MTX treatment the patients experienced significantly less wheezing, dyspnoea and coughing. Nine out of 12 patients reported better asthma control during MTX treatment. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1) values did not differ between MTX and placebo treatments. There was no statistical correlation between serum MTX concentration and clinical improvement. No serious adverse effects of MTX were found during the study. It was concluded that low-dose MTX may be beneficial for severe chronic asthma and that this therapy is well tolerated by patients.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Asthma ; Methotexate ; steroid-sparing effect ; blood levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and adverse effects of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of severe chronic asthma in 12 patients with severe asthma requiring continuous treatment with oral steroids at the Outpatient Department of Helsinki University Central Hospital. The study was a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methotrexate treatment 15 mg weekly on a crossover basis over 24 weeks. During the 2 weeks baseline phase the mean dose of oral steroids administered was 10.9 (3.2–28) mg · day−1, and the mean dose of inhaled steroids administered was 2.3 (1.6–3.2) mg budesonide or beclomethasone. The average dose of oral steroids administered was 12.8 mg · day−1 during the last 2 placebo weeks but only 7.9 mg · day−1 during the last 2 weeks with MTX treatment. The reduction in daily dose of oral steroids was 38%, while daily bronchodilator use was reduced by 22%. During MTX treatment the patients experienced significantly less wheezing, dyspnoea and coughing. Nine out of 12 patients reported better asthma control during MTX treatment. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1) values did not differ between MTX and placebo treatments. There was no statistical correlation between serum MTX concentration and clinical improvement. No serious adverse effects of MTX were found during the study. It was concluded that low-dose MTX may be beneficial for severe chronic asthma and that this therapy is well tolerated by patients.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: prazosin ; hypertension ; central monoaminergic neurons ; monoamine metabolites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six hypertensive patients were treated with prazosin up to a final dose of 3–4.5 mg/day. There was a significant reduction of blood pressure. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major metabolites of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin were unchanged. This indicates that the antihypertensive effect is not mediated via central monoaminergic neurons as suggested by animal studies.
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