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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 60 (1989), S. 55-70 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Conclusions and caveats With political ideology with respect to the income distribution measured by proxy as the fraction of conservative coalition victories, it is found that over the period 1961–1984 the degree of conservative coalition strength is positively associated with changes in inequality, holding the effects of unemployment and inflation constant. A natural question is why don't the low income types vote in candidates who will consistently redistribute income in their favor? The result of such a political process would be a downward trend in income inequality. In point of fact, there is no evidence whatsoever of any trend in income equality over the period. The answer to both questions may be that Tullock (1983, 1986) is on to something. If the middle class voters transfer gains back and forth, the poor can't gain and they don't, then the distribution should be stable and is. Income redistribution is not a free good. It has been widely recognized that there are efficiency losses to the economy for movements toward greater income inequality (see Okun, 1975). Blinder (1982) has suggested an analytical framework for modeling the linkage between equity and efficiency. Structural modeling of policy variables on equality measures and Farrell-type efficiency measures reveals the order of magnitude of the trade-off for some policy instruments (see Hayes, Scully and Slottje, 1987a). It is highly likely that policy permutations that affect equity in one direction affect efficiency in the opposite direction. Political coalitions that succeed in moving the economy to a greater degree of equity create efficiency losses. The efficiency losses produce political coalitions that move the economy to a higher degree of efficiency (lower equity). By implication, policy and the income distribution are stochastic, and, the statistical association between the income distribution measures and the conservative coalition variable is spurious. Nelson and Plosser (1982) have found that a vast number of U.S. macroeconomic time series behave as a random walk. It has also been found that the various equity measures reported in this paper, when examined over the period 1947 to 1984, behave as a random walk (see Hayes, Porter-Hudak, Scully and Slottje, 1987b). One explanation is that in light of the strong empirical evidence on the stochastic evolution of the economy, of economic policy and of equity, and the finding of an empirical linkage between the equity measures and the political variable employed here, a case can be made that the strength of these political coalitions behaves stochastically. The conclusion is not that politics does not affect economic variables. Rather, the position of Congress on the liberal-conservative continuum is stochastic. These results are consistent with the Tullock hypothesis that redistribution is basically a middle income, pressure group activity with little gain for those as the bottom. Tullock might argue that it doesn't matter which group on the spectrum controls Congress, the transfers will be constrained to the middle. The empirical evidence doesn't invalidate his contentions. We do not have enough degrees of freedom to test whether the measure of the liberal-conservative spectrum is a deterministic function or is an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 68 (1991), S. 195-215 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Summary and conclusions The Adelman-Morris premise that economic development and equity are incompatible is not supported by the evidence of a strong relationship between equality of rights and the income distribution. The premise that equity requires the denial of individual rights and the affirmation of state control is an oxymoron. What has been overlooked in the literature on growth and equity is the effect of the rights structure on both economic efficiency and on the income distribution. The evidence is that free societies have much larger shares of income going to the middle 60 percent of the distribution than is observed in societies where men are not free to choose. In politically open societies compared to politically closed regimes the share of income to the middle three quintiles is: Q2 (10.7 vs. 8.0), Q3 (16.0 vs. 11.5), and Q4 (22.9 vs. 17.9). In the aggregate the shares to the middle quintiles are 49.6 vs. 37.4. In nations that obey the rule of law compared to regimes in which the rights of the state relative to the individual are paramount the comparisons are: Q2 (11.2 vs. 7.4), Q3 (16.3 vs. 10.6), Q4 (23.0 vs. 17.3). Summing the three quintiles yields a comparison of 50.5 vs. 35.3. In countries that have private property, market allocation of resources, and minimum intervention by the state compared to command economies the shares of income to the middle quintiles are: Q2 (10.8 vs. 8.0), Q3 (16.0 vs. 11.1), and Q4 (22.8 vs. 17.7). Aggregated the shares of the middle class in regimes with high levels of economic liberty are 49.6 vs. 36.8 for regimes with restricted private economic rights. Equally revealing as a matter of equity is the status of the poor and the rich in free and statist nations. The income share of the highest income group is much larger in nations that repress individual rights than in those where rights are protected. Averaging across the rights measures the share of income going to the highest income quintile is 58.3 percent among the least free nations and is 44.4 percent among the most free, a staggering difference of nearly 14.0 percentage points. Among the poorest members of society choice of the rights regime does not have much of an impact on their share of income. While the share averaged across rights measures is larger in the most free nations (5.7 vs. 5.3), the difference is not statistically significant.3 Economic progress and equity are not incompatible. Nations can move to a less restrictive rights regime and increase economic efficiency, economic growth, and equity. Collectivism is a lubricious path to economic progress and equity. Using Ward's composite inequality index, they correlated the Ward measure with GNP per capita, Gastil's rights measures, and a number of other policy and quality of life variables. They found evidence that choice of economic system (capitalism vs. socialism) had no effect on the inequality measure, but that inequality diminishes with increases in civil and political rights.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 82 (1995), S. 17-36 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract An endogenous model of constitutional changes and economic growth links the temporal decline in private market returns when technology is constant with the returns to rule changes realized in a political market. There is a steady state constitutional setting in which all rule changes have been incorporated that is analytically equivalent to the neoclassical steady state. As in the neoclassical model, private-sector technological progress postpones the steady state. To the extent the original constitutional setting promotes innovation, the evolutionary process toward the steady state is delayed. The model yields a theory of revolution based on forces leading to the adoption of inefficient changes in the constitutional setting.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 83 (1995), S. 203-219 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Congressional tenure is longer now than in earlier times, but it is largely a myth that the era of the professional politician is a modern phenomenon. Here, tenure is compared between the 57th and 86th Congresses. Tenure is linked to a simple median voter model. Increased tenure is associated with an increased ability to transfer government expenditures to the political unit. The increased size of government at the time of the 86th Congress compared to the 57th Congress, largely explains the greater length of time in office. The higher tenure of southern legislators is linked to lower per capita incomes.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Public choice 90 (1997), S. 311-324 
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Despite greater rates of capital accumulation, per capita growth rates among Third World nations (particularly, Africa) are much lower than among the advanced, capitalist nations. In this paper I examine the critical roles of the rule space and policy on economic growth. Empirically, nations with poor institutions and policies grow at about a fifth of the rate of nations with good institutions and policies.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The inorganic component of bone and related hard tissues is generally described as sheets of uniform needle- and plate-like crystals. However, cryofixation has become the method of choice for ultrastructural studies of bone mineral when ladder-like arrangements of filaments contained within deformable microspheres about 1 µm in diameter are apparently the prime structural feature and are consistent with the optical image. The same methodology has now been applied to mature human dentine in caries-free juvenile and adult teeth. These were fixed, sliced, stained for mineral and examined optically or were snap frozen, fragmented under liquid nitrogen, freeze-substituted with methanol or acetone and embedded without thawing in Lowicryl K4M for electron microscopy. Others were processed by traditional transmission electron microscopy methods. To obtain maximum resolution, the electron micrographs were photographically printed as negatives and image-enhanced by digitisation using a Polaroid Sprint Scan 45 and laser printer. In both optical and cryopreparations of juvenile and adult dentine, mineral microspheres up to 1 µm in diameter, were present in the dentinal tubules and peritubular dentine. Within these objects, the mineral was primarily in the form of sinuous electron dense filaments, 5 nm thick, which had a characteristic periodicity. In these preparations needle-like and plate-like structures were rare. In contrast, after traditional transmission electron microscopy preparation although similar filamentous structures remained, the mineral more generally had the familiar form of needles measuring approximately 50 nm in the long axis. The cryopreserved calcified filaments were apparently particularly densely distributed in the intertubular dentine where their parallel ladder-like arrays often formed highly orientated struts and stays. It was concluded that early dentine mineral has the form of filamentous microspheres and as in bone (and other calcifying tissues and cells) has no specific association with collagen. It was also concluded that these structures compact and deform with maturity into a sub-structural framework which may relate to powerful biomechanical forces transmitted through the tissue. Needle- or plate-like mineral is probably rare in vivo in dentine, only becoming commonplace after extensive chemical processing.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6865
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin are ‘bone-specific’ phosphoproteins, but their function is uncertain and their ultrastructural associations remain unclear. Insight into their role was sought by special attention to their general distribution and specific morphology under the high-power optical microscope. Their extracellular staining characteristics were examined in cryosections of adult rat skeletal tissues using two immunohistochemical methods. The two proteins were clearly evident in immature woven bone of endochondral and intramembranous origin (although cartilage was negative, even when calcified). In mature lamellar bone, bone sialoprotein remained ubiquitous, while osteopontin was confined to cement lines and other relatively discrete sites of past and present resorption activity, particularly near blood vessels. In neither case was the distribution of the stain structureless and diffuse. Invariably (except when non-specific), it was sharply defined and had the form of microspheres measuring approximately 1 μm in diameter. In both immature and mature regions, these objects appeared in sheets, chains or groups in a pattern that was evidently coincident with a similar structural arrangement found within the inorganic phase of bone. It was concluded that phosphoproteins are not randomly located throughout the collagenous matrix but are apparently integral to calcified microsphere populations, and it is suggested that these structures are well placed to control the chemical State of the mineral over their surfaces and influence remodelling.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-3378
    Keywords: corporate ethics ; effects of definitions of ethics ; spirit of ethics ; changing definitions of ethics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract This article is based on the study of two companies that differ in their definition of thics, one with a narrower definition than the other. The one with the narrower definition invited skepticism about its commitment to the spirit of ethics but was better to claims made against their own standards and language. The implications of these findings for corporate ethics programs are discussed.
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  • 10
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    Unknown
    New Orleans, La. : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Review of financial economics. 8:2 (1972/1973:Winter) 100 
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