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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Geoengineering, especially its potentially fast and high-leverage versions, is often justified as a necessary response to possible future climate emergencies. In this article, we take the notion of ‘necessity’ in international law as a starting point in assessing how rapid, high-leverage geoengineering might be justified legally. The need to specify reliably ‘grave and imminent peril’ makes such a justification difficult because our scientific ability to predict abrupt climate change, for example, as tipping elements, is limited. The time it takes to establish scientific consensus as well as policy acceptance restricts the scope for effective forewarning and so pre-emptive justifications for geoengineering become more tempting. While recognizing that dangerous, large-scale impacts of climate change is becoming increasingly difficult to avoid, the pre-emptive, emergency frame is problematic. We suggest that arguments from emergency operate on a high level of uncertainty and tend toward hubristic attempts to shape the future, as well as tending to close down rather than open up space for deliberation. We conclude that the emergency frame is not likely to go away, that ignoring or repressing it is a dangerous response, and that more effort is required to defuse and disarm emergency rhetoric.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    In:  [Talk] In: Climate Engineering Conference 2014, 18.-21.08.2014, Berlin, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2014-12-09
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Current mitigation efforts and existing future commitments are inadequate to accomplish the Paris Agreement temperature goals. In light of this, research and debate are intensifying on the possibilities of additionally employing proposed climate geoengineering technologies, either through atmospheric carbon dioxide removal or farther-reaching interventions altering the Earth's radiative energy budget. Although research indicates that several techniques may eventually have the physical potential to contribute to limiting climate change, all are in early stages of development, involve substantial uncertainties and risks, and raise ethical and governance dilemmas. Based on present knowledge, climate geoengineering techniques cannot be relied on to significantly contribute to meeting the Paris Agreement temperature goals.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature Climate Change, 5 (5). pp. 419-423.
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: The useful energy services and energy density value of fossil carbon fuels could be retained for longer timescales into the future if their combustion is balanced by CO2 recapture and storage. We assess the global balance between fossil carbon supply and the sufficiency (size) and capability (technology, security) of candidate carbon stores. A hierarchy of value for extraction-to-storage pairings is proposed, which is augmented by classification of CO2 containment as temporary (〈1,000 yr) or permanent (〉100,000 yr). Using temporary stores is inefficient and defers an intergenerational problem. Permanent storage capacity is adequate to technically match current fossil fuel reserves. However, rates of storage creation cannot balance current and expected rates of fossil fuel extraction and CO2 consequences. Extraction of conventional natural gas is uniquely holistic because it creates the capacity to re-inject an equivalent tonnage of carbon for storage into the same reservoir and can re-use gas-extraction infrastructure for storage. By contrast, balancing the extraction of coal, oil, biomass and unconventional fossil fuels requires the engineering and validation of additional carbon storage. Such storage is, so far, unproven in sufficiency.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-04-11
    Description: Continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate threatening “severe, pervasive and irreversible” impacts. Inadequate emissions reduction is resulting in increased attention on Climate Intervention (CI) – deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth’s radiation budget, or remove the primary greenhouse gas from the atmosphere – Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR). The majority of future scenarios that do not exceed 2°C warming by 2100 include CDR methods. At present, there is little consensus on the impacts and efficacy of the different types of proposed CDR. In response, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDR-MIP) has been initiated. This project brings together a suite of Earth System Models (ESMs) and Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICS) in a common framework to explore the potential, risks, and challenges of different types of proposed CDR. The first set of CDR-MIP experiments address climate "reversibility" and the response of the Earth system to direct CO2 removal (direct air capture). Here we present some of the first results of these experiments and also discuss the design and implementation of the next experiments that explore CDR via land use change and ocean alkalinization. In particular we will highlight which components of the simulated climate system exhibit "reversibility", when CO2 increases and then decreases, and the time scales over which this occurs. Many of the trends are similar with different models; however, there is some disagreement in the response of the simulated carbon cycle.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels continue to rise, increasing the risk of severe impacts on the Earth system, and on the ecosystem services that it provides. Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) is capable of reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and surface warming and addressing ocean acidification. Here, we simulate global and regional responses to alkalinity (ALK) addition (0.25 PmolALK yr−1) over the period 2020–2100 using the CSIRO-Mk3L-COAL Earth System Model, under high (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5; RCP8.5) and low (RCP2.6) emissions. While regionally there are large changes in alkalinity associated with locations of AOA, globally we see only a very weak dependence on where and when AOA is applied. On a global scale, while we see that under RCP2.6 the carbon uptake associated with AOA is only ∼ 60 % of the total, under RCP8.5 the relative changes in temperature are larger, as are the changes in pH (140 %) and aragonite saturation state (170 %). The simulations reveal AOA is more effective under lower emissions, therefore the higher the emissions the more AOA is required to achieve the same reduction in global warming and ocean acidification. Finally, our simulated AOA for 2020–2100 in the RCP2.6 scenario is capable of offsetting warming and ameliorating ocean acidification increases at the global scale, but with highly variable regional responses.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: The recent IPCC reports state that continued anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the climate, threatening "severe, pervasive and irreversible" impacts. Slow progress in emissions reduction to mitigate climate change is resulting in increased attention to what is called geoengineering, climate engineering, or climate intervention – deliberate interventions to counter climate change that seek to either modify the Earth's radiation budget or remove greenhouse gases such as CO2 from the atmosphere. When focused on CO2, the latter of these categories is called carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Future emission scenarios that stay well below 2 °C, and all emission scenarios that do not exceed 1.5 °C warming by the year 2100, require some form of CDR. At present, there is little consensus on the climate impacts and atmospheric CO2 reduction efficacy of the different types of proposed CDR. To address this need, the Carbon Dioxide Removal Model Intercomparison Project (or CDRMIP) was initiated. This project brings together models of the Earth system in a common framework to explore the potential, impacts, and challenges of CDR. Here, we describe the first set of CDRMIP experiments, which are formally part of the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). These experiments are designed to address questions concerning CDR-induced climate "reversibility", the response of the Earth system to direct atmospheric CO2 removal (direct air capture and storage), and the CDR potential and impacts of afforestation and reforestation, as well as ocean alkalinization.〉
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-28
    Description: Climate change resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2 is having detrimental effects on the Earth system. Societies have recognized that anthropogenic CO2 emissions must be reduced and ultimately cease to avoid potentially catastrophic impacts. However, at present timely and necessary emissions reductions appear to be very difficult to achieve. To compliment less than sufficient emissions reductions carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere is suggested. CDR is proposed through increasing natural carbon sinks, engineering new carbon sinks, or combing natural uptake with engineered storage. Initial studies demonstrate that removal of CO2 from the atmosphere will elicit a carbon cycle response with a “rebound” and other feedbacks generally opposing and so reducing the net-removal. We review this work into the carbon cycle response to CDR in general and for different proposed CDR methods and discuss future research needs. Understanding these dynamics and their uncertainties have important implications for quantifying the efficacy of CDR.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    Print ISSN: 1381-2386
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1596
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-26
    Electronic ISSN: 2058-7546
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Springer Nature
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