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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-8107
    Keywords: Key Words. Cell expansion—Fusicoccin—Mutant— Tomato
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract. The response to fusicoccin (FC) of the elongated tomato mutant procera was tested. Hypocotyl sections from etiolated procera seedlings responded to a range of FC concentrations similar to that of normal sections, but at a given FC concentration the mutant sections exhibited about 40% greater elongation than normal. The initial rates of elongation in FC were similar for normal and procera sections, but elongation continued at a high rate for a longer period in the mutant. Measurements of outer cortical cells demonstrated that the enhanced elongation of the procera hypocotyl sections was due to enhanced cell expansion.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-8107
    Keywords: Fusicoccin ; Gossypium ; Morphology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Fusicoccin (FC) was applied as a spray to shoots of intact field- and glasshouse-grown cotton plants. Distortions of shoot morphology resulted. Stems and petioles of FC-treated plants were irregular in diameter and twisted, whereas leaf laminae were curled and crinkled. Shoot elongation was inhibited by FC; the effect was dependent upon the concentration and timing of the applications.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-8107
    Keywords: Key Words. Fasciation—Gibberellin—Gossypium—Leaf-shape—Mutant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract. The round-leafed mutant cotton line L-501 developed fasciation of the upper stem when field grown in Central Asia. Fasciation co-segregated with the mutant gene for round leaves In. l Fasciation developed at the flowering stage, but removal of floral buds did not prevent fasciation. Fasciation in L-501 could be inhibited by the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitor chlorocholine chloride or by fusicoccin. GA3 application in the field induced fasciation in the mutant's parental line L-463, which has five-lobed leaves and does not normally develop fasciation. Fasciation did not develop in either line, even after GA3 treatment, in UK glasshouse conditions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Twenty-five plant tissues from several species, including thirteen crown gall tissues, were analysed for the full range of unusual compounds (the opines) whose synthesis in crown gall cells and utilization by Agrobacterium tumefaciens are genetically determined by the Ti plasmids found in this bacterial species. A technique for the analysis of the non-guanidino opines by GC and GC/MS is described. None of the opines were detected in any of the various normal tissues analysed. In the crown gall tissues, on the other hand, these compounds were often present at very high levels. The type of opines found in the crown gall tissues was dependent on the strain of initiating bacterium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 147 (1980), S. 269-273 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Crown gall ; Cytokinins ; Nicotiana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cytokinins were extracted from two cultures of tobacco crown gall tumor tissue: an unorganized tissue and a teratoma which produced leafy shoots. On Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, extracts of both types of tissue yielded two peaks of cytokinin activity with elution volumes similar to ribosylzeatin and zeatin. Ribosylzeatin and zeatin were detected and quantified by coupled gas chromatography — mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC/MS SIM), comparable quantities being found in the two extracts. Full mass spectral evidence for the presence of ribosylzeatin in both tissues was obtained. No evidence was found for the presence of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine (i6Ade) or N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (i6Ade) although these compounds have been reported to occur in cytokinin-habituated tobacco callus tissues.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Gibberellin (internode length, number) ; Internode (cell length, number) ; Lycopersicon (stem growth) ; Mutant (tomato)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants homozygous for the mutant pro gene, exhibiting the distinctive procera phenotype, appeared virtually identical to gibberellic acid (GA3)-treated isogenic normal plants. The pro gene and GA3 caused analogous increases in internode length, and in the length and number of cells in the outer cell layers of each internode. Internode number was also increased by pro and GA3 over the period of the experiment. Despite their greater length, the internodes of GA3-treated and pro plants reached their final size within a time period similar to that of internodes of untreated normal plants. The pro mutant itself was responsive to GA3, especially in the seedling stage, but the proportional increase in height seen in the later stages of growth was less than that of normal plants.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ; Ethylene biosynthesis ; Pisum (ethylene)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The biosynthetic basis for the high rates of ethylene production by the apical region of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings was investigated. The ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was quantified in extracts of various regions of seedlings by measuring isotopic dilution of a 2H-labelled internal standard using selected-ion-monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ACC levels in the apical hook and leaves were much higher than in the expanded internodes of the epicotyl. The capacity of excised tissue sections to convert exogenous ACC to ethylene was also much greater in the apical region, reflecting the distribution of soluble protein in the epicotyl.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Cell division ; Cell extension ; Gibberellin ; Internode ; Mitotic cell size ; Pisum (internode development)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. This study analysed the dynamics of cell production and extension, and how these were affected by applied gibberellic acid (GA3), during internode development in dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Meteor). Image analysis was used to obtain cell number and length data for entire cell columns along the epidermis, the two outermost cortical layers, and the pith, from internode 7, over a time period covering the whole of the internode's growth phase. For a few days following the inception of an internode at the shoot apex, little further growth occurred, and there was no significant effect of GA3 on cell division or cell extension. The subsequent growth of the internode was stimulated more than fourfold by GA3 as a result of the production of more than twice the number of cells, which were twice as long. At least 96.5% of the cells of the mature internode were actually formed within the internode itself during this period of growth, demonstrating that the internode cells themselves represent the morphogenetic site of response to GA3. Mitoses and cell extension occurred along the full length of the internode throughout its development. The daily changes in cell numbers were modelled by the Richards function, and manipulations of the fitted functions to reveal time trends of absolute and specific cell production rates were performed for each stem tissue. The increase in cell numbers in the +GA3 plants was brought about by an increase in the rate of cell production, over a shorter time interval; specific cell production rates declined continuously from initial rapid rates in the +GA3 epidermis and pith, but declined more slowly in the cortex. The control (−GA3) epidermis and cortex cells exhibited a constant specific cell production rate (i.e. purely exponential) for several days. Cell extension rates were calculated so as to compensate for the size-reduction effects of concurrent cell division. These calculations confirmed that `real' cell extension rates were higher in the +GA3 internodes. Models of the cellular controls of internode growth, based on the estimated dynamics of cell division and extension, are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Crown gall ; Cytokinin ; Mass spectrometry (cytokinins) ; Vinca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The range of zeatin glycosides found in crown gall tissue of Vinca rosea L. has been quantified using a mass spectrometric isotope dilution procedure. Problems in the quantitative analysis of cytokinins in plant extracts are discussed.
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