Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
Abstract In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H2SO4 and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulphate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulphate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulphate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH=3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulphate deposition lead to a luxuriant growth ofJuncus bulbosus andAgrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H2SO4 deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr. The acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulphate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH3-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulphate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters.
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