Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract A combination of linear response models is used to estimate the transient changes in the global means of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, surface temperature, and sea level due to aviation. Apart from CO2, the forcing caused by ozone (O3) changes due to nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from aircraft is also considered. The model is applied to aviation using several CO2 emissions scenarios, based on reported fuel consumption in the past and scenarios for the future, and corresponding NOx emissions. Aviation CO2 emissions from the past until 1995 enlarged the atmospheric CO2 concentration by 1.4 ppmv (1.7% of the anthropogenic CO2 increase since 1800). By 1995, the global mean surface temperature had increased by about 0.004 K, and the sea level had risen by 0.045 cm. In one scenario (Fa1), which assumes a threefold increase in aviation fuel consumption until 2050 and an annual increase rate of 1% thereafter until 2100, the model predicts a CO2 concentration change of 13 ppmv by 2100, causing temperature increases of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 K and sea level increases of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 cm in the years 2015, 2050, and 2100, respectively. For other recently published scenarios, the results range from 5 to 17 ppmv for CO2 concentration increase in the year 2050, and 0.02 to 0.05 K for temperature increase. Under the assumption that present-day aircraft-induced O3 changes cause an equilibrium surface warming of 0.05 K, the transient responses amount to 0.03 K in surface temperature for scenario Fa1 in 1995. The radiative forcing due to an aircraft-induced O3 increase causes a larger temperature change than aircraft CO2 forcing. Also, climate reacts more promptly to changes in O3 than to changes in CO2 emissions from aviation. Finally, even under the assumption of a rather small equilibrium temperature change from aircraft-induced O3 (0.01 K for the 1992 NOx emissions), a proposed new combustor technology which reduces specific NOx emissions will cause a smaller temperature change during the next century than the standard technology does, despite a slightly enhanced fuel consumption. Regional effects are not considered here, but may be larger than the global mean responses.
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