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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An explosion occurred in a petroleum product storage tank at a refinery. The liquid petroleum product was a heavy oil used as an asphalt extender. There were no injuries, but the cleanup was costly. The storage tank was one of several which received the product stream from a dehydration unit. The accident occurred shortly after the refinery was brought back on-line following a shutdown for schduled maintenance.This was the first incident of this kind to occur at this facility. Analysis of the process data and eyewitness observations indicated that the dehydration tower, which was supposed to be maintained at a minimum of 100°C during the shutdown, was allowed to drift below 100°C for an unknown period of time. This deviation enabled liquid water to enter the storage tank. Three operational factors contributed to the accident. Corrective actions were recommended to prevent a recurrence of a similar incident.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 127-133 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An explosion and flash fire in a fixed bed reactor occurred at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Two employees were injured in the accident. The accident occurred in an ozone treatment building where ozone was used to treat odors from the offgas of the sludge concentration units. Excess ozone manually was routed to the fixed bed reactor (ozone destruct unit) where the ozone is catalytically transformed into oxygen before being discharged to the atmosphere.An investigation of the accident was conducted to determine the root cause of the explosion and flash fire and identify corrective actions which the WWTP management could undertake to prevent a recurrence. This investigation included site inspections, interview with the injured employees, sampling and analysis of various materials, an explosion dynamics analysis, and a root cause analysis.It was concluded that cooling oil from one of the ozone generation units entered the main ozone gas line due to a crack in one of the reactor's dielectric tubes. The cooling oil was vented into the ozone destruct unit when an employee opened a ball valve on the main ozone gas line. The cooling oil, essentially a saturated hydrocarbon mixture, reacted exothermically when it contacted the manganese dioxide catalyst. The exothermic reaction resulted in an explosion which propelled the access panel outwards and dispersed the catalyst pellets. A flash fire followed the explosion. The flash fire burned two employees and caused thermal damage to a nearby control panel.Although this accident was the first of its kind at this facility, this was not the first time that the ozone generator had experienced a failure of a dielectric tube. Thus, there was a significant probability that a dielectric tube failure could leak cooling oil into the main ozone gas line. This failure event could, in turn, result in another explosion and flash fire. The WWTP staff neither designed nor fabricated the ozone generator-destructor system. Therefore, it did not seem appropriate for the WWTP staff to modify the ozone system. Instead, it was recommended that the ozone destruct unit be taken out of service. The WWTP management acted on this recommendation.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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