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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    New York [u.a.] : Springer-Verl.
    Associated volumes
    Call number: PIK N 076-00-0448
    In: Ecological studies
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 500 p. + CD
    ISBN: 3540670254
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 142
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Call number: PIK W 511-10-0088
    In: Ecological studies
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Part A Introduction ; 1 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: The Starting Point ; 2 An Introduction to the Functional Diversity of Temperate Forest Trees ; Part B Productivity and Growth ; 3 Diversity and Productivity in Forests: Evidence from Long-Term Experimental Plots ; 4 Confounding Factors in the Observed Productivity-Diversity Relationship in Forests ; 5 Genetic Diversity Parameters Associated with Viability Selection, Reproductive Efficiency and Growth in Forest Tree Species ; Part C Biogeochemical Cycles ; 6 Functioning of Mixed-species Stands: Evidence from a Long-Term Forest Experiment ; 7 The Role of Biodiversity on the Evaporation of Forests ; 8 Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Quality and Decomposition ; 9 The Effect of Biodiversity on Carbon Storage in Soils ; 10 Silviculture and Its Interaction with Biodiversity and the Carbon Balance of Forest Soils ; Part D Animals, Pests, and Disturbances ; 11 Linkages Between Tree Diversity, Soil Faunaand Ecosystem Processes ; 12 A Test of the Biodiversity-Stability Theory: Meta-analysis of Tree Species Diversity Effects on Insect Pest Infestations, and Re-examination of Responsible Factors ; 13 Susceptibility to Fungal Pathogens of Forests Differing in Tree Diversity ; 14 Implication of Forest Diversity in Resistanceto Strong Winds ; 15 Fire Regime and Tree Diversity in Boreal Forests: Implications for the Carbon Cycle ; Part E Perspectives ; 16 The Design of Experimental Tree Plantationsfor Functional Biodiversity Research ; 17 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: A Synthesis ; Taxonomic Index (Genera)
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 399 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540221913
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 176
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Branch cross-sectional area ; Leaf area ; Leaf biomass ; Picea abies ; Sapwood area
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The relationship of leaf biomass and leaf area to the conductive area of stems and branches was investigated in Picea abies. A total of 30 trees were harvested to determine if these relationships were different in different crown zones and in trees growing with and without competition for light. Two methods were compared. In the first, data were accumulated from crown zones situated at the top of trees to the bottom; in the second, data were used from individual crown zones. The results indicated that the latter method is much more sensitive in detecting differences in the relationship of leaf biomass or leaf area to conductive area. The analysis also indicated that ratios such as leaf area/sapwood area are frequently size-dependent. This size-dependency can in some cases result in the differences being abscured, but more often leads to the false impression that the relationship between the variables changes. The relationship between leaf biomass and leaf area and conductive area of stems or branches was different in different crown zones and under different growth conditions. The slopes of these regressions appear to increase with decreasing transpirational demand and decrease with increasing hydraulic conductivity. The intercepts are probably related to the amount of identified sapwood actually involved in water conductance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: P/V curve ; Picea abies ; Aerial uptake ; Bark permeability ; Mass flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Uptake of water and magnesium chloride solution was investigated through the outer surface of twigs of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Water uptake was determined by using pressure/volume (P/V) curves of the twigs as a basis for calculation to avoid problems of superficial extraneous water. When water was sprayed on bark and needles of 3- to 7-year-old twigs at a xylem water potential of -1.00 MPa, they absorbed as much as 80 mm3 water in 200 min/g twig dry weight as the twig water potential recovered to -0.15 MPa. With fluorescent dyes, pathways for absorption of water and solutes through the twig bark were found, particularly through the radially orientated ray tissue. In addition to uptake by mass flow, magnesium could also diffuse along a concentration gradient from the twig surface into the xylem. In the field, the magnitude of these uptake processes would depend on the concentration of elements deposited by atmospheric precipitation, the concentration gradient between the plant surface and the xylem sap, the xylem water potential and the intensity and duration of each precipitation event.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 219-224 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Photosynthesis ; Stomatal conductance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Individual 33-year-old forest trees of the deciduous conifer speciesLarix decidua, Larix leptolepis andLarix decidua x leptolepis were investigated with respect to the phenomenon of stem heterosis in hybrid larch; the first part of this study compares the gas exchange responses of leaves. CO2 assimilation per leaf area was similar in the three larch species, but on a dry weight basis the nitrogen content of the needles and maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Amax) were slightly higher in the hybrid. This increase was accompanied by a higher protein content than in the Japanese and a lower specific leaf weight than in the European larch. All three species were similar in terms of the photosynthetic “nitrogen use” and stomatal conductance atA max. The similar slopes of the area-related steady-state responses of gas exchange against irradiance, evaporative demand and internal CO2 concentration led to similar rates of CO2 uptake under ambient conditions. The natural combinations and variability of the environmental factors also reduced the small dry weight-related difference inA max between hybrid larch and the parent species, such that all trees achieved similar daily carbon gains. Thus, the ecological significance of small interspecific differences in the metabolism of leaves has very little effect under the natural habitat conditions of a temperate climate. The second part of the study will investigate the effect of growth characteristics on the heterosis of hybrid larch.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trees 1 (1987), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Heterosis ; Growth ; Branching pattern ; Needle density
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Among 33-year-old forest trees ofLarix decidua, L. leptolepis andL. decidua x leptolepis, the hybrid possessed an above-ground biomass which was three times greater, although all larches displayed similar relative distributions of biomass. At a “relative growth rate” slightly lower than in the parent species, hybrid larch achieved twice the annual carbon gain, increment in stem length and above-ground production, and its foliage-related stem growth was higher than in European (L. decidua) but similar to Japanese (L. leptolepis) larch. A similar “relative growth efficiency” and foliage-related total above-ground production in all trees did reflect the similarity of photosynthetic capacity of the hybrid found at the leaf level. While the lengths of lateral twigs on hybrid branches were intermediate between the European larch with short, and the Japanese larch with large, twigs the hybrid possessed the longest branches with the highest needle biomass. This resulted in a crown structure of the hybrid crown similar to the Japanese larch together with a high needle density on branches as in the European larch. In total, the foliage biomass per crown length was about 30% higher in hybrid larch than in both of the parent species. Thus, the high carbon input for the stem heterosis was based on a “complementation principle” of advantageous parent features at the crown level. Similar slopes of foliage against sapwood area of stem and branches did not indicate a special need for a thick hybrid stem with respect to water transport.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Larix ; Carbon uptake ; Respiration ; Carbon balances ; Water loss ; Sun and shade branches
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Shade needles of hybrid larch (Larix decidua × leptolepis) had the same rates of photosynthesis as sun needles per dry weight and nitrogen, and a similar leaf conductance under conditions of light saturation at ambient CO2 (Amax). However, on an area basis, Amax and specific leaf weight were lower in shade than in sun needles. Stomata of sun needles limited CO2 uptake at light saturation by about 20%, but under natural conditions of light in the shade crown, shade needles operated in a range of saturating internal CO2 without stomatal limitation of CO2 uptake. In both needle types, stomata responded similarly to changes in light, but shade needles were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit than sun needles. Despite a high photosynthetic capacity, the ambient light conditions reduced the mean daily (in summer) and annual carbon gain of shade needles to less than 50% of that in sun needles. In sun needles, the transpiration per carbon gain was about 220 mol mol−1 on an annual basis. The carbon budget of branches was determined from the photosynthetic rate, the needle biomass and respiration, the latter of which was (per growth and on a carbon basis) 1.6 mol mol−1 year−1 in branch and stem wood. In shade branches carbon gains exceeded carbon costs (growth + respiration) by only a factor of 1.6 compared with 3.5 in sun branches. The carbon balance of sun branches was 5 times higher per needle biomass of a branch or 9 times higher on a branch length basis than shade branches. The shade foliage (including the shaded near-stem sun foliage) only contributed approximately 23% to the total annual carbon gain of the tree.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fires in boreal forests frequently convert organic matter in the organic layer to black carbon, but we know little of how changing fire frequency alters the amount, composition and distribution of black carbon and organic matter within soils, or affects podzolization. We compared black carbon and organic matter (organic carbon and nitrogen) in soils of three Siberian Scots pine forests with frequent, moderately frequent and infrequent fires.Black carbon did not significantly contribute to the storage of organic matter, most likely because it is consumed by intense fires. We found 99% of black carbon in the organic layer; maximum stocks were 72 g m−2. Less intense fires consumed only parts of the organic layer and converted some organic matter to black carbon (〉 5 g m−2), whereas more intense fires consumed almost the entire organic layer. In the upper 0.25 m of the mineral soil, black carbon stocks were 0.1 g m−2 in the infrequent fire regime.After fire, organic carbon and nitrogen in the organic layer accumulated with an estimated rate of 14.4 g C m−2 year−1 or 0.241 g N m−2 year−1. Maximum stocks 140 years after fire were 2190 g organic C m−2 and 40 g N m−2, with no differences among fire regimes. With increasing fire frequency, stocks of organic carbon increased from 600 to 1100 g m−2 (0–0.25 m). Stocks of nitrogen in the mineral soil were similar among the regimes (0.04 g m−2). We found that greater intensities of fire reduce amounts of organic matter in the organic layer but that the greater frequencies may slightly increase amounts in the mineral soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1612-4677
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is one of the key processes that need to be assessed in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. Several studies suggest that the terrestrial biosphere is gaining carbon, but these estimates are obtained primarily by indirect ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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