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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-30
    Description: Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide are a common stressor for fish and other aquatic animals. In particular, intensive aquaculture can impose prolonged periods of severe environmental hypercapnia, manifold exceeding CO2 concentrations of natural habitats. In order to cope with this stressor, gills are essential and constitute the primary organ in the acclimatization process. Yet, despite a general understanding of changes in ion regulation, not much is known with regard to other cellular mechanisms. In this study, we apply RT-qPCR to investigate changes in the expression of several genes associated with metabolism, stress and immunity within gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) after an eight-week exposure to different concentrations of CO2 (low = ~3000 μatm, medium = ~15000 μatm and high = ~25000 μatm CO2). Histological examination of the gill tissue only found a significant increase of hypertrophied secondary lamella in the highest tested treatment level. gene expression results, on the other hand, implied both, mutual and dose-dependent transcriptional adjustments. Comparable up-regulation of IL-1ß, LMP7 and Grim19 at medium and high hypercapnia indicated an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within gill cells. Simultaneous increase in Akirin and PRDX transcripts at medium CO2 indicated enhanced anti-oxidant activity and regulation of transcription, while reduced mRNA concentrations of COX, EF1α and STAT2 at high CO2 denoted suppressed protein synthesis and reduced metabolic capacity. In addition to upregulated DFAD and ApoE expression, implying compensating repair measures, gills exposed to the highest tested treatment level seemed to operate close to or even beyond their maximum capacity. Thus, fitting the model of capacity limitation, our results provide evidence for accretive intracellular hypoxia and oxidative stress in the gills of turbot, dependent on the level of environmental hypercapnia. Further, genes, such as COX, may be valuable biomarkers when attempting to discriminate between a successful and an overpowered stress response.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1927 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 540 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-15
    Description: Fish - Food and livelihood for a growing world population, industrial sector and finite resource. One quarter of all known edible fish are considered overfished. For this reason, researchers at Kiel University and GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel are looking at the resource fish from a wide variety of perspectives. Their common goal: finding new approaches to environmentally sound fisheries management. Kiel biologists, economists and legal experts are working closely together in the Cluster of Excellence "The Future Ocean" toward this goal.
    Type: Video , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hermann, Bernd Timo; Würtz, Sven; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich; Schulz, Carsten; Stiller, Kevin Torben (2019): Divergent gene expression in the gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) exposed to chronic severe hypercapnia indicates dose-dependent increase in intracellular oxidative stress and hypoxia. Aquatic Toxicology, 206, 72-80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.10.023
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: The data sets stem from a study which aimed to investigate the impact of chronic severe hypercapnia on the cellular stress response in the gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima). The experiment was conducted in the so called respirometer, a recirculating aquaculture respirometer system (RARS) which allowed the persistent, stable manipulation of carbon dioxide concentrations. Juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) where subjected to different levels of environmental hypercapnia (low: ~3000 μatm, medium: ~15000 μatm, high: ~25000 μatm). After eight weeks, fish where sacrificed and gill samples were taken for further histological and transcriptional analysis. For histological investigation of the gills, samples where fixed in 4% phosphate-buffered formalin and examined via a microscope equipped with a digital camera. In order to investigate changes in the transcriptome, a fraction of the gill samples was stored in RNAlater. Relative gene expression analysis was conducted via RT-qPCR, using a Fluidigm chip system. Calibrated normalized relative quantities (CNRQs) where assessed with the QBASE software. This included the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes with the help of the GeNorm algorithm.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-02-06
    Description: Highlights: • First feeding of wild brown trout fry with partial inclusion of dietary plant proteins is beneficial for subsequent growth • Feeding of 50% dietary plant protein results in same growth when compared to fishmeal as exclusive protein source • The early feeding of plant-based diets did not induce nutritional programming effects in first-feeding fry • Wild brown trout fry exhibit highly plastic responses to different feeding strategies during the first months of life • Pepsin and amylase activities are only partly affected by plant-derived protein sources and rather intrinsically regulated Abstract: Decreasing fishmeal availability and increasing prices promote the usage of plant-derived feedstuff as a substitution for fishmeal in commercial salmonid diets. However, little is known about the impact of plant-derived feedstuff on juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta), a species that exhibits strong phenotypic plasticity with various genetic sub-structures and high overall genetic diversity. Thus, the production of brown trout for restocking purposes preferentially uses wild fish as broodstock to avoid loss of genetic variability. Because of nutritional programming, the strictly carnivorous feeding habit of wild brown trout broodfish could nevertheless have a negative impact on the digestive physiology of fry and fingerlings that are fed with commercial plant-protein containing trout diets. The present study, therefore, investigated whether the feeding of plant-based diets from first feeding onwards induced a permanent improvement in the utilisation of plant-derived protein sources in wild brown trout juveniles. Any plastic responses to the experimental diets resulting in a long-term physiological effect were hypothesised to be not only observed in growth performance, but also in altered pepsin and amylase activities. We demonstrated that (i) the feeding of wild brown trout fry with inclusion levels of up to 50% of dietary plant proteins is beneficial during the first weeks of life and (ii) continuous feeding of at least 50% plant-derived dietary protein resulted in the same rate of growth when compared to the growth resulting from fishmeal as the exclusive dietary protein source. Pepsin and amylase activities were only partly affected by diet-type and it can be concluded that intestinal pepsin and amylase activities in juvenile brown trout are primarily regulated by intrinsic mechanisms. In the present experiment, we were not able to induce a permanent nutritional programming effect of the first feeding diet; instead, a cross-over diet change applied 89 days post first feeding demonstrated that wild brown trout fry exhibit highly plastic responses to different feeding strategies during the first months of life.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Kiel: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Agrarökonomie
    Publication Date: 2019-02-26
    Description: Aquaculture is the most recent addition to animal husbandry and it is the fastest growing food production industry. Its contribution to world food security in the 21st century is already significant and it is bound to continue to grow because demand for fish for human consumption is rapidly increasing whereas fish supplies from ocean fisheries are likely to decline. The rapid evolution of aquaculture involved a host of innovations of which many were based on R&D activities by public and private research organizations. Applied R&D tends to be the more effective the better focused it is on specific research problems or opportunities. Among the many possible aquaculture production systems on which aquaculture R&D might focus are recirculation aquaculture systems and in this paper we explore crucial aspects of the potential of urban recirculation aquaculture. Our exploration begins with a vision of recirculation aquaculture production plants located at the fringes of cities of converging economies. Such production systems are distinctly different from conventional urban aquaculture systems based on urban sewage. We scrutinize our vision from four perspectives: (i) the expected demand for aquaculture fish from urban consumers; (ii) cost competitiveness of fish produced at the fringes of cities as compared to fish produced in the rural hinterland; (iii) the potential for integration of urban recirculation aquaculture production into the modern food supply chains that are now emerging in converging economies, and (iv) the ecological footprint of aquaculture production compared to that of chicken production. Based on trends in the growth of urban populations world-wide and trends in demand for fish for food we estimate a total urban demand for aquaculture finfish between 11 and 51 million tons in 2025. We use von Thünen's location theory to provide support for the vision to locate recirculation aquaculture plants not within cities and not in their rural hinterland but on the fringes of cities. Moreover, we argue that tightly controlled recirculation aquaculture production would seem to be particularly well suited for being integrated into modern food supply chains. Finally, we compare the ecological footprint of recirculation aquaculture fish with that of industrially produced chicken and we find that the ecological balance depends on the source of energy used. We conclude our exploratory study with some thoughts on the implication for aquaculture R&D of the potential for recirculation aquaculture located on the fringes of cities in emerging economy countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    In:  [Talk] In: DGfZ-/GfT- Vortragstagung, 15.-16.09.2010, Kiel, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Züchtungskunde
    In:  [Paper] In: DGfZ/GfT-Gemeinschaftstagung, 15.-16.09.2010, Kiel, Germany . Tagungsband der DGfZ/GfT-Gemeinschaftstagung .
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-02-28
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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