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  • 1
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A specific and sensitive gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant levoprotiline in blood, plasma and urine and the simultaneous determination of levoprotiline and its desmethyl metabolite in urine. Deuterium-labelled analogues were used as internal standards. The compounds were isolated from the biological fluids by liquid-liquid extraction under basic conditions. Following derivatization with perfluoropropionic anhydride, the samples were analysed by capillary column gas chroma-tography/electron impact mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. The analysis of spiked samples demonstrated the high accuracy and precision of the method. Blood concentrations of levoprotiline down to 0.7 nmol I-1 (1 ml used for analysis) could be quantified with a coefficient of variation of 10% or less. The method is suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies of levoprotiline in humans.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new 20-channel electron cyclotron absorption diagnostic has been developed at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project. It is the first time the electron pressure profile in a tokamak plasma can be measured directly with a time resolution of 1 ms. The diagnostic measures simultaneously the emission and absorption of the second harmonic electron cyclotron frequencies. Microwaves are injected from the high field side and detected at the low field side in the equatorial midplane. The transmitted power is measured after a single pass through the plasma column. The absorption measurements are complicated by nonresonant losses: refraction of the injected microwaves (losses up to 100%), and scattering of microwaves by density fluctuations (losses 2%–3%). A fast algorithm has been developed to obtain a quantitative measure for these nonresonant losses. This calculation method is based on a parametrization of the experimental data. Combining the electron cyclotron absorption (ECA) measurements and the parametrization provides a reliable tool for determining the optical depth, the electron temperature, and the electron pressure. A good agreement was found between pressure and temperature profiles, measured with ECA and other diagnostics. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The Rutherford scattering diagnostic at TEXTOR has been used to investigate the time evolution of the ion velocity distribution during sawtooth activity. Coherent averaging techniques have been employed to obtain better statistics. The time evolutions of central ion and electron density were found to be strongly correlated in four out of five cases. In one case, where saturation of the sawteeth occurred, a discrepancy between the two has been found, which could be attributed to an influx of impurities towards the end of the sawtooth. Changes of about 20% in the central toroidal rotation of the bulk ions have been found during sawtooth crashes of neutral beam injected discharges, whereas no changes were found in the ohmic case. No statistically reliable statements can be made about changes in the ion temperature. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The Rutherford scattering diagnostic at TEXTOR is used to perform temporal and spatial resolved measurements of the ion temperature. Function parametrization techniques are used for fast analysis of the complex spectra, which also contain information about the presence of impurities in the scattering volume. The (perpendicular) central ion temperature has been determined for a series of discharges, where neutral beam coinjection (hydrogen) was applied to plasmas of different densities. A temperature of 2.8 keV was found for a line-averaged electron density of 1.5×1019 m−3, decreasing monotonically for higher densities to 0.8 keV at 6.0×1019 m−3. When deuterium was used as heating beam species, scattering on a high-Z impurity, probably tungsten from the filaments of the NBI sources, gave a dominant contribution to the spectra.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Measurements of the electron temperature, Te, and density, ne, during the energy quench of a major disruption showed that the onset of Te erosion in the neighborhood of the m/n=2/1 O point at the low field side (LFS) accelerates the well-known m/n=1/1 erosion of the core temperature. During this phase Te(r) is only partially flat in the region between the q=2 and the q=1 surfaces and ne(r) decreases in the core and increases inside the m/n=2/1 island. Immediately after the flattening of Te(r) a large peak in Te and to a lesser extent in ne has been observed. This peak is radially localized at the q=2 radius at the LFS, is very short lived and is poloidally asymmetric. Te profiles measured by the heterodyne radiometer and the Thomson scattering agree very well up to the time Te(r) flattens but afterwards can be a factor of two different. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A Rutherford scattering diagnostic has been applied at the TEXTOR tokamak to obtain spatially and temporally resolved information on the temperature of the bulk ions in the plasma. In the experimental setup, a helium atomic beam (30-keV, 12-mA equivalent current) passes vertically through the plasma core. A small part of the injected atoms is scattered elastically by the thermally moving plasma ions. The ion temperature in the scattering volume can be determined from the broadening of the energy spectrum of the scattered particles. Energy analysis of the scattered atoms is performed by a mass-selective time-of-flight analyzer detecting the particles at an observation angle which is selectable between 3° and 8°. Coincidence techniques have been successfully applied in this detector for rejection of background events triggered by detections of neutrons and gamma radiation. Ion temperature profiles were measured on a shot-to-shot basis by shifting the cross section of the diagnostic beam and the observational volume of the analyzer through the plasma. The ion temperatures measured in ohmic deuterium plasmas were found to be in reasonable agreement with those obtained from passive neutral particle analysis. Up to now, ion temperatures have been measured throughout the complete discharge with an accuracy of 8% and a time and space resolution of 100 ms and 0.10 m at a scattering angle of 7°. Deuteron density profiles could be deduced from the scattering yield measured at different radial positions in the plasma. The ratio of the isotopes, hydrogen and deuterium, was determined from their separate contributions to the spectrum of helium particles scattered on hydrogen and deuterium. Although theoretical predictions showed that the majority of the probing helium atoms loses one of its electrons during the elastic scattering process on multiply charged carbon and oxygen ions, contributions from impurities to the observed experimental spectrum are shown to appear dominant for impure plasmas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-02-10
    Description: Experiences with three practical meteorological applications with different characteristics are used to highlight the core computer science aspects and applicability of distributed computing to meteorology. Presenting Cloud and Grid computing this paper shows use case scenarios fitting a wide range of meteorological applications from operational to research studies. The paper concludes that distributed computing complements and extends existing high performance computing concepts and allows for simple, powerful and cost effective access to computing capacity.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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