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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Problems in trace element analysis in the biomedical and environmental field are discussed, especially for the most interesting elements, as well as adequate analytical techniques for their analysis. The “state of the art” for the relevant elements, the recommended methods as well as the new “speciation” analysis are briefly described. Besides these points, quality control, becoming more and more important to improve the reliability of analytical data, is discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Urinary excretion of232Th was assessed, in occupationally non-exposed persons by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measurements were performed in 55 healthy subjects. Mean daily232Th excretion was 47±26 μBq·d−1 (range 17–121 μBq·d−1). Results obtained showed no statistically significant correlation with age and no differences were found between males and females. The impact on the assessment of intakes by workers is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Best. von Kupfer, Eisen, Zink, Calcium, Magnesium, Natrium in Blutserum ; Spektrometrie, ICP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Anwendung der ICP-Emissionsspektralanalyse für die direkte Bestimmung von Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg und Na in menschlichem und tierischem Blutserum wird beschrieben. Aufgrund der hohen Anregungstemperatur in einem Plasma treten dabei die von der konventionellen Atomabsorptionsspektroskopie her bekannten chemischen Interferenzen nicht auf, so daß mit geringen Probenmengen (max. 1 ml Serum für den Nachweis dieser 6 Elemente) ein sehr empfindlicher und sehr gut reproduzierbarer Nachweis möglich ist.
    Notes: Summary The application of ICP-emission spectroscopy for the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg and Na in human and animal serum is described. Due to the very high excitation temperature in a plasma the well known chemical interferences in atomic absorption spectroscopy do not appear in this technique. It is possible to carry out very sensitive and very well reproducible measurements on very small amounts of the sample (the total sample consumption for the determination of the above mentioned six elements is less than 1 ml).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Aufgrund der hohen erreichbaren Temperatur und des hohen Druckes wurde der Hochdruckverascher HPA zur Veraschung von biologischem Material für die nachfolgende voltammetrische Bestimmung von Spurenelementen getestet. Anhand einiger verschiedener Standard-referenzmaterialien konnte gezeigt werden, daß sich dieses Naßveraschungsverfahren in ausgezeichneter Weise für dieses Einsatzgebiet, bei dem es auf eine vollkommene Zerstörung der organischen Matrix ankommt, eignet. Mit einer Mischung von HNO3 und einer geringen Menge HClO4 und unter Verwendung verschiedener Temperaturprogramme konnte eine Vielzahl von verschiedenartigen biologischen Matrices in geeigneter Weise zerstört werden. Dabei erhaltene Ergebnisse der Spurenelementbestimmungen sowie die Blindwerte des Aufschlußverfahrens werden angegeben.
    Notes: Summary On the basis of the high temperature and high pressure available in the “High Pressure Ashing System (HPA)”, this new device was tested for ashing biological material for a subsequent analytical determination of trace elements by voltammetric techniques, especially DPASV. By means of different standard reference materials it could be shown that this wet ashing technique is very suitable for this analytical method for which a complete destruction of organic material is one of the most important requirements. The application of a mixture of HNO3 and a small amount of HClO4 and the use of different temperature programmes allows a very satisfactory destruction of different organic materials. The results for various materials and for some trace elements and the blank values of the procedure are given.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A method for the Mo-determination in human serum or plasma is described, employing ICP-MS coupled with graphite furnace atomization. Because of severe differences between the slopes of an aqueous calibration function and the signals produced in native serum samples, the standard addition method has to be used. Seventy serum samples from healthy individuals in the age between 2 and 60 years have been investigated. The mean value for the Mo-concentration found was 0.58±0.34 μg/l.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A method for the determination of free iodide in human serum has been developed. Iodide from pooled serum samples has been separated from the organic matter by SEC, subsequently freeze-dried and analyzed by ion chromatography. Investigations for recovery and precision have been carried out and provided sufficient results. For quality assurance ICP-MS has been taken additionally as a total I-detector. The iodide results of ICP-MS agree well with IC values. Iodine containing SEC- fractions from iodide-spiked samples has shown no increased I-values except that in the iodide fractions, proving that there has been no iodide conversion into other I-species (and vice versa) during the whole procedure. Free iodide from two serum pools of different healthy persons has been determined as 2.25 and 2.43 μg I–/l, respectively. The values are related to total iodine levels determined by ICP-MS. For comparative reasons a table of individual iodine and iodide values is presented.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The concentration of some additional elements like Ag, Au, B, Ba, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Na, P, Pt, and S in some standard reference materials (SRM's) were determined by using high resolution ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma)-emission spectrometry. The materials used were three soils and three sludges from the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference, European Communities) and one sediment from NBS (National Bureau of Standards, USA). The aqua regia soluble and the total content using HF-treatment were shown. The given results are the mean values of 6 independent measurements for each material and for each decomposition method (certification conditions). The quantitative determination of Au and Pt was not possible due to severe spectroscopic interferences, which could not be eliminated. Beside the concentration values also the measured detection limits and the limits of determination for each element in the matrices under investigation are given. For comparison and for testing the validity of the decomposition procedures, also certified elements like Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn have been analysed in all the samples.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Keywords: Spektrometrie, ICP ; Abhängigkeit des Meßsignals von der Säurekonzentration, Cu-Bestimmung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Ähnlich wie bei der Atomabsorptionsspektroskopie in der Flamme, ist auch bei der ICP-Emissionsspektralanalyse die Aerosolbildung aus der Probelösung ein sehr wichtiger Faktor, speziell für die Empfindlichkeit. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, am Beispiel der Cu-Bestimmung unter Verwendung eines pneumatischen- und eines Ultraschall-Zerstäubers den Einfluß verschiedener Säuren und verschiedener Säurekonzentrationen auf das Meßsignal bzw. auf die Steigung der Eichkurve zu untersuchen. Dabei konnten in Abhängigkeit von der Dichte der Lösung z. T. erhebliche Unterschiede festgestellt werden.
    Notes: Summary Similar to AAS in flames, one of the most important factors in ICP-spectroscopy is the production of a suitable aerosol from the sample solution. The aim of this paper was, to investigate the influences of different acids and their different concentrations to the measured signal, by the example of Cu determination. A pneumatic and an ultrasonic nebulizer were applied. Sometimes strong differences as a function of the density of the solution could be observed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Basierend auf der bereits früher beschriebenen Druckveraschungsapparatur [1] wurde diese Methode für Totalaufschlüsse von Silicatmatrices wie Boden, Klärschlamm, Sediment u. ä. unter Verwendung von Flußsäure weiterentwickelt. Durch Verwendung von graphitverstärktem PTFE in Verbindung mit Reinst-PTFE Probenbehälter kann in der bestehenden Apparatur mit einem Säuregemisch HF/HNO3 gearbeitet werden, das unter der Bedingung des Druckaufschlusses vergleichbare Ergebnisse zu den bisher bekannten Total-Aufschlußmethoden liefert. Dieser Aufschluß wurde anhand einiger Standardreferenzmaterialien (SRM's) überprüft. Der Vorteil gegenüber dem HF-Aufschluß im Platintiegel liegt vor allem in der sehr großen Zeitersparnis und im Arbeiten im geschlossenen System, so daß nicht mit einer Kontamination der Probe bzw. mit Elementverlusten zu rechnen ist.
    Notes: Summary Based on the earlier described pressure ashing device [1], a modified system is described for a complete HF-ashing technique of silicate matrices like soils, sediments and sludges. Using graphite fortified PTFE material in combination with pure PTFE sample containers, it is possible to apply a mixture of HNO3/HF for ashing in the closed pressure ashing apparatus. This technique was tested with several standard reference materials. The advantage of the new system is a considerable saving of time, freedom of contamination and element losses in comparison to the open techniques.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Brassica oleracea was used for plant availability studies and the material will also be available for quality control purposes. The cabbage, grown on sludge-amended soil, was harvested and processed to a homogeneous powder. The results of a preliminary test on homogeneity and a broad spectrum of element concentrations determined are reported. The soil around the plants was also collected and examined. Estimates of uptake coefficients Ccrop/Csoil are given.
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