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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Schnug, Lisbeth; Ergon, Torbjørn; Jakob, Lena; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Joner, Erik J; Leinaas, Hans Petter (2015): Responses of earthworms to repeated exposure to three biocides applied singly and as a mixture in an agricultural field. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 223-235, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.089
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The study aimed at investigating effects of three differently acting biocides; the insecticide esfenvalerate, the fungicide picoxystrobin and the bactericide triclosan, applied individually and as a mixture, on an earthworm community in the field. A concentration-response design was chosen and results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate approaches. Effects on juvenile proportions were less pronounced and more variable than effects on abundance, but effects in general were species- and chemical-specific, and temporal variations distinct. Esfenvalerate and picoxystrobin appeared to elicit stronger effects than triclosan at laboratory-based ECx values, which is in accordance with our previous laboratory study on Eisenia fetida. The mixture affected abundance and juvenile proportions, but the latter only at high mixture concentrations. Esfenvalerate and picoxystrobin appeared to be the main drivers for the mixture's toxicity. Species-specific toxicity patterns question the reliability of mixture toxicity predictions derived on E. fetida for field earthworms. Biocide concentrations equaling EC50s (reproduction) for E. fetida provoked effects on the field earthworms mainly exceeding 50%, indicating effect intensification from the laboratory to field as well as the influence of indirect effects produced by species interactions. The differing results of the present field study and the previous laboratory study imply that lower- and higher-tier studies may not be mutually exclusive, but to be used in complementary.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The sulphur content of three rapeseed reference materials has been certified on the basis of measurements made by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. Their suitability for the calibration of x-ray fluorescence spectrometers used for measuring sulphur in rapeseed samples was established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary With regard to agronomical and ecological aspects there is an increasing interest in total glucosinolate determination in vegetative plant materials. In contrast to time and work consuming chromatographic and insufficient colorimetric methods commonly used, a new simple as well as rapid method is presented, which bases on the enzymatical release of sulfate from the glucosinolate molecule. In order to avoid losses of glucosinolates during sampling and preparation for the analysis of vegetative samples total and undamaged plants are dried at 85 °C. The extraction of free sulfate is done by an 1∶20 extract in 1 mol/l ascorbic acid, whereas the enzymatically released sulfate is determined by an 1∶20 extract in an aqueous solution containing 750 units/ml H1-sulfatase. In the next step sulfate is precipitated from a defined Ba-solution and quantified indirectly by an emission-spectrometric determination of the remaining Ba-concentration. The glucosinolate content of the sample results from differences in the sulfate concentrations of both extracts. On an average 98.4% of pure sinigrin added to a model system was recovered in the experiments. A comparison of results determined by the enzymatic method with HPLC yields a close (r = 0.98) correlation between both methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: As ; Au ; Ba ; B ; Br ; Ca ; Cd ; Celery ; Contaminated soils ; Co ; Cr ; Ce ; Fe ; Hg ; La ; Mn ; Mo ; N-fertilizers ; Rb ; S ; S-sources ; Sb ; Sc ; Se ; Th ; Zn
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary In order to investigate elemental composition of celery, and to quantify the influence of sulfur-containing N-fertilizers on the trace element uptake, a field trial with celery was carried out on marsh soil polluted with municipal wastes. The research yielded the following results: Compared to leaves at harvest time, bulbs showed significantly lower concentrations of Mo, S and Sb, but higher contents of B, Br and Cr and Cu. Since the acidifying effect of the fertilizers was suppressed by the free calcium carbonate in the soil, no significant changes in concentrations of cationic trace elements were detected in plants fertilized with ammonium sulfate compared to those which received urea or calcium ammonium nitrate. On the other hand, in these plants the conspicuous increase in total sulfur was accompanied by a significant decrease in concentrations of up to 30% for B, Br and Sb, 50% for As, 60% for Se and 80% for Mo. According to these results, in plant production on contaminated soils certain plant parts may be marketable due to their low tendency to accumulate toxic elements, and furthermore it may be feasible to reduce the contents of some of these elements in plants by the use of sulfur-containing fertilizers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Einführung glucosinolatarmer Rapssorten (00-Raps) in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft erfordert u.a. Methoden für die präzise, schnelle und unkomplizierte Bestimmung des Gesamtglucosinolatgehaltes von Rapssamen. Als Alternative zu den bisher gebräuchlichen Verfahren (GC, HPLC, Palladiumtest und Reflektometrie) wird eine indirekte Methode vorgestellt, die auf der engen Beziehung zwischen Glucosinolatgehalt und Gesamt-S-Gehalt im Rapssamen basiert. Der Gesamt-S-Gehalt im Rapssamen wird mittels Röntgenfluorescenzanalyse im gemahlenen und tablettierten Samen bestimmt. Matrixeffekte auf die Intensität der SKα-Strahlung waren nicht festzustellen, was auf einen Verdünnungseffekt durch den hohen Ölgehalt von Rapssamen zurückzuführen sein dürfte. Zur Standardisierung werden Rapssamen mit bekanntem Glucosinolatgehalt verwendet. Bei nur drei Arbeitsschritten (Mahlen, Tablettieren, Messen) werden für eine Glucosinolatbestimmung insgesamt weniger als 2 min benötigt. Mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 2,1 μmol Glucosinolate/g entfettetem Rapsmehl zeichnet sich die vorgestellte Methode neben der hohen Schnelligkeit darüber hinaus auch durch eine große Präzision aus.
    Notes: Summary The introduction of oilseed-rape cultivars poor in glucosinolates within the EC necessitates methods for a precise, rapid as well as simple determination of the total content of glucosinolates in oilseed-rape. In contrast with the methods commonly used (GC, HPLC, palladium test and reflectrometry) the indirect procedure presented here is based on the rather close correlation between glucosinolate content and the total S-content of rapeseed. The total S-content of the samples, which are ground and pressed before, is exactly determined by means of X-ray-spectrometry. Matrix effects upon the intensity of the SKα-radiation could not be observed, probably due to the dilution by the high content of oil in rapeseed. Standardisation was made by use of rapeseed with known glucosinolate content. As the described determination of glucosinolates requires only three steps for analysis (grinding, pressing, measuring) the total time for one sample takes only less than 2 min. The detection limit of 2.1 μmol glucosinolates/g defatted meal demonstrates the extreme precision together with a high velocity of the method proposed.
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2014-07-02
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text/csv
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Nitrous oxide ; Forage crops ; Spring barley ; Nitrogen fertiliser ; Thawing and freezing cycles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  N2O emission rates from a sandy loam soil were measured in a field experiment with 2 years of perennial forage crops (ryegrass, ryegrass-red clover, red clover) and 1 year of spring barley cultivation. Spring barley was sown after the incorporation of the forage crop residues. All spring barley plots received 40 kg N ha–1 N fertiliser. Ryegrass, ryegrass-red clover and red clover plots were fertilised with 350 kg N ha–1, 175 kg N ha–1 and 0 kg N ha–1, respectively. From June 1994 to February 1997, N2O fluxes were continuously estimated using very large, closed soil cover boxes (5.76 m2). In order to compare the growing crops, the 33 months of investigation were separated into three vegetation periods (March–September) and three winter periods (October–February). All agronomic treatments (fertilisation, harvest and tillage) were carried out during the vegetation period. Large temporal changes were found in the N2O emission rates. The data were approximately log-normally distributed. Forty-seven percent of the annual N2O losses were observed to occur during winter, and mainly resulted from N2O production during daily thawing and freezing cycles. No relationship was found between the N2O emissions during the winter and the vegetation period. During the vegetation period, N2O losses and yields were significantly different between the three forage crops. The unfertilised clover plot produced the highest yields and the lowest N2O losses on this soil compared to the highly fertilised ryegrass plot. Total N2O losses from soil under spring barley were higher than those from soil under the forage crops; this was mainly a consequence of N2O emissions after the incorporation of the forage crop residues.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A sulphur (S)-deficient top soil was used in a pot experiment to investigate the effect of S supply on shoot and root growth and development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The treatments consisted of three rates of addition of S: 0, 20 and 40 mg kg−1 soil and each was replicated four times. Alfalfa was harvested at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 d after seedling emergence.By the end of the experiment, plants with S supply had a significantly larger leaf area, heavier leaf, shoot and root dry weight per pot than controls. The effects of adding S also significantly increased plant height, basal stem diameter, chlorophyll concentration of young leaves, root length and root surface area compared with controls. The effects of S were greater on shoots than on roots. The ratio of root to shoot dry weight was 0·47 when S was supplied and 0·88 without added S, indicating that c. 0·32 and 0·47 of the total net photosynthate, produced with or without S supply, respectively, were used for the development of roots. Overall, overcoming S deficiency resulted in a significant increase in shoot and root growth.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The sulphur status of four soils and 122 forage plants from the Inner Mongolia steppe was determined. The organic sulphur concentration ranged from 17 μg g–1 in the 0·2–0·4 m soil layer to 397 μg g–1 in the topsoil. The mean sulphate-S concentrations were 〈10 μg g–1; greater concentrations were found only in the chernozem soil. Biomass-S accounted for 0·018–0·028 of total S in four soils. Three-quarters of plant samples examined had 〈1·6 g kg–1 S, and 〉0·80 of them had an N:S ratio 〉14:1. More than 0·80 of the plants were deficient in S. There was a close relationship between plant-available soil sulphur concentrations and total plant sulphur concentrations. It was concluded that sulphur deficiency is widespread in the Inner Mongolia steppe and that sulphur fertilizer requirements should be evaluated.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: Agriculture, Vol. 8, Pages 43: Hungry Plants—A Short Treatise on How to Feed Crops under Stress Agriculture doi: 10.3390/agriculture8030043 Authors: Silvia Haneklaus Elke Bloem Ewald Schnug Fertilisation is as old as is the cultivation of crops. In the 19th century, plant nutrition became an area of research in the field of agricultural chemistry. Liebig’s “Law of the Minimum” (1855) is still the basis for plant nutrition. It states that the exploitation of the genetically fixed yield potential of crops is limited by that variable, which is insufficiently supplied to the greatest extent. With a view to abiotic and biotic stress factors, this postulation should be extended by the phrase “and/or impaired by the strongest stress factor”. Interactions between mineral elements and plant diseases are well known for essential macro- and micronutrients, and silicon. In comparison, the potential of fertilisation to alleviate abiotic stress has not been compiled in a user-orientated manner. It is the aim of this chapter to summarise the influence of nutrient deficiency in general, and the significance of sodium, potassium, and silicon, in particular, on resistance of crop plants to abiotic stress factors such as drought, salinity, and heavy metal stress. In addition, the significance of seed priming with various nutrients and water to provide tolerance against abiotic stress is discussed. Underlying physiological mechanisms will be elaborated, and information on fertiliser application rates from practical experiences provided.
    Electronic ISSN: 2077-0472
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by MDPI
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