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  • 1
    Call number: SR 96.0498(273)
    In: Report
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 10 S.
    Series Statement: Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie 273
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-686-273
    In: Report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 10 S. ; 30 cm
    ISSN: 0937-1060
    Series Statement: Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie 273
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-13
    Description: The coupling on decadal time scales of the mid‐latitude and tropical Pacific via an oceanic ‘bridge’ in the thermocline is investigated using ocean general circulation model hindcasts and a coupled ocean atmosphere model. Results indicate that in the tropics decadal anomalies of isopycnal depth are forced by Ekman pumping and are largely independent of the arrival of subducted anomalies in the thermocline that originate in the mid‐latitudes of either hemisphere. In the coupled model, temperature anomalies on isopycnals show little coupling from the tropics to the northern hemisphere, but are lag correlated between southern hemisphere mid‐ and low‐latitudes. However, anomaly magnitudes on the equator are small. These results suggest that the oceanic ‘bridge’ to the northern hemisphere explains only a small part of the observed decadal variance in the equatorial Pacific. Coupling to the southern mid‐latitudes via temperature anomalies on isopycnals remains an intriguing possibility.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Climate, 9 (1). pp. 219-239.
    Publication Date: 2018-07-23
    Description: The physics of the Indo–Pacific warm pool are investigated using a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. The model, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fair Meteorologic, Hamburg, does not employ a flux correction and is used with atmospheres at T42 and T21 resolution. The simulations are compared with observations, and the model's mean and seasonal heat budgets and physics in the Indo–Pacific warm pool region are explored for the T42 resolution run. Despite the simulation of a split intertropical convergence zone, and of a cold tongue that extends too far to the west, simulated warm pool temperatures are consistent with observations at T42 resolution, while the T21 resolution yields a cold bias of 1K. At T42 resolution the seasonal migration of the warm pool is reproduced reasonably well, as are the surface heat fluxes, winds, and clouds. However, simulated precipitation is too small compared to observations, implying that the surface density flux is dominated by fluxes of heat. In the Pacific portion of the warm pool, the average net heat gain of the ocean amounts to 30–40 W m−2. In the northern branch, this heat gain is balanced by vertical advection, while in the southern branch, zonal, meridional, and vertical advection cool the ocean at approximately equal rates. At the equator, the surface heat flux is balanced by zonal and vertical advection and vertical mixing. The Indonesian and Indian Ocean portions of the warm pool receive from the atmosphere 30 and 50 W m−2, respectively, and this flux is balanced by vertical advection. The cooling due to vertical advection stems from numerical diffusion associated with the upstream scheme, the coarse vertical resolution of the ocean model, and near-inertial oscillations forced by high-frequency atmospheric variability. The seasonal migration of the warm pool is largely a result of the seasonal variability of the net surface heat flux, horizontal and vertical advections are of secondary importance and increase the seasonal range of surface temperature slightly everywhere in the warm pool, with the exception of its southern branch. There, advection reduces the effect of the surface flux. The seasonal variability of the surface heat flux in turn is mainly determined by the shortwave radiation, but evaporation modifies the signal significantly. The annual cycles of reduction of solar radiation due to clouds and SST evolve independently from each other in the Pacific portion of the warm pool; that is, clouds have little impact on SST. In the Indian Ocean, however, clouds limit the maximum SST attained during the annual cycle. In the western Pacific and Indonesian portion of the warm pool, penetrative shortwave radiation leads to convective mixing by heating deeper levels at a greater rate than the surface, which experiences heat losses due to turbulent and longwave heat fluxes. In the deeper levels, there is no mechanism to balance the heating due to penetrative radiation, except convection and its attendant mixing. In the Indian Ocean, however. the resulting vertical heating profile due to the surface fluxes decreases monotonically with depth and does not support convective mixing. Concurrently, the warm pool is shallower in the Indian Ocean compared with the western Pacific, indicating that convective mixing due to penetrative radiation is important in maintaining the vertical structure of the Pacific portion of the warm pool.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96 (2015): 921–938, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00117.1.
    Description: El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a naturally occurring mode of tropical Pacific variability, with global impacts on society and natural ecosystems. While it has long been known that El Niño events display a diverse range of amplitudes, triggers, spatial patterns, and life cycles, the realization that ENSO’s impacts can be highly sensitive to this event-to-event diversity is driving a renewed interest in the subject. This paper surveys our current state of knowledge of ENSO diversity, identifies key gaps in understanding, and outlines some promising future research directions.
    Description: AC acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation for this study.
    Description: 2015-12-01
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-05-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 29 (2016): 8317-8331, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0109.1.
    Description: A simple analytic model is developed to represent the offshore decay of cold sea surface temperature (SST) signals that originate from wind-driven upwelling at a coastal boundary. The model couples an oceanic mixed layer to an atmospheric boundary layer through wind stress and air–sea heat exchange. The primary mechanism that controls SST is a balance between Ekman advection and air–sea exchange. The offshore penetration of the cold SST signal decays exponentially with a length scale that is the product of the ocean Ekman velocity and a time scale derived from the air–sea heat flux and the radiative balance in the atmospheric boundary layer. This cold SST signal imprints on the atmosphere in terms of both the boundary layer temperature and surface wind. Nonlinearities due to the feedback between SST and atmospheric wind, baroclinic instability, and thermal wind in the atmospheric boundary layer all slightly modify this linear theory. The decay scales diagnosed from two-dimensional and three-dimensional eddy-resolving numerical ocean models are in close agreement with the theory, demonstrating that the basic physics represented by the theory remain dominant even in these more complete systems. Analysis of climatological SST off the west coast of the United States also shows a decay of the cold SST anomaly with scale roughly in agreement with the theory.
    Description: MASwas supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Endowed Fund for Innovative Research and the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-1433170 and PLR-1415489. NS was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NNX14AL83G, the Department of Energy, Office of Science Grant DE-SC0006766, and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology as part of the JAMSTEC-IPRC Joint Investigations.
    Description: 2017-05-03
    Keywords: Coastal flows ; Ekman pumping/transport ; Ocean dynamics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
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    Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie
    In:  MPI-Report, 273 . Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, . pp.
    Publication Date: 2019-08-07
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-05-01
    Description: The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is defined as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of the North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. In this study, we reconstructed the PDO using the first-order autoregressive model from various climate indices representing the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO), Aleutian Low (AL), sea surface height (SSH), and thermocline depth over the Kuroshio–Oyashio extension (KOE) region. The climate indices were obtained from observation and twentieth-century simulations of the eight coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase III (CMIP3). In this manner, we quantitatively assessed the major climate components generating the PDO using observation and models. Based on observations, the PDO pattern in the central to eastern North Pacific was accurately reconstructed by the AL and ENSO indices, and that in the western North Pacific was best reconstructed by the SSH and thermocline indices. In the CMIP3 CGCMs, the relative contribution of each component to the generation of the PDO varied greatly from model to model, and observations, although the PDO patterns from most of the models were similar to the pattern observed. In the models, the PDO pattern in the eastern and western North Pacific were well reconstructed using the AL and SSH indices, respectively. However, the PDO pattern reconstructed by the ENSO index was quite different from the observed pattern, which was possibly due to the model's common deficiency in simulating the amplitude and location of the ENSO. Furthermore, the differences in the contribution of the KOE thermocline index between the observed pattern and most of the models indicated that the PDO pattern associated with ocean wave dynamics is not properly simulated by most models. Therefore, the virtually well simulated PDO pattern by models is a result of physically inconsistent processes. ©2012 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0177-798X
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2010-06-01
    Description: Recently, prominent jet-like features of the ocean circulation, called striations, with a meridional scale of O(300–500 ;km) and extending for thousands of kilometers in length, have been detected in satellite and in situ observations and in high-resolution numerical models. In this paper, we study quasi-stationary striations, which are best seen in the multi-year time-averaged velocity fields. Using 1993–2002 mean dynamic ocean topography, satellite altimeter observations, and output of the Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator, the dynamics of the quasi-stationary striations in the eastern parts of the subtropical North and South Pacific are examined by assessing individual terms in the time-averaged equations of relative and potential vorticity. While non-linear effects are found to be essential in the dynamics of the striations, rejecting some linear hypotheses forwarded in the earlier studies, the relevance of the Rhines mechanism is not confirmed. Eddy flux does not act as a relative vorticity source for the striations. Using the potential vorticity (PV) diagnostics, we show that the time-mean PV is not conserved along the time-mean streamlines, and on the scale of the striations these changes in PV are largely induced by the eddy flux of layer thickness. The fact that eddy fluxes contribute to the striations’ time-mean PV budget suggests that the striations are not a kinematical artifact of time-averaging of westward-propagating eddies. ©2010 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2010-06-01
    Description: An eddy-resolving multidecadal ocean model hindcast simulation is analyzed to investigate time-varying signals of the two recirculation gyres present respectively to the north and south of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) jet. The northern recirculation gyre (NRG), which has been detected at middepth recently by profiling float and moored current meter observations, is a major focus of the present study. Low-frequency variations in the intensity of the recirculation gyres are overall highly correlated with decadal variations of the KE jet induced by the basin-wide wind change. Modulation of the simulated mesoscale eddies and its relationship with the time-varying recirculation gyres are also evaluated. The simulated eddy kinetic energy in the upstream KE region is inversely correlated with the intensity of the NRG, consistent with previous observational studies. Eddy influence on the low-frequency modulation of the NRG intensity at middepth is further examined by a composite analysis of turbulent Sverdrup balance, assuming a potential vorticity balance between the mean advection and the convergent eddy fluxes during the different states of the recirculation gyre. The change in the NRG intensity is adequately explained by that inferred by the turbulent Sverdrup balance, suggesting that the eddy feedback triggers the low-frequency modulation of the NRG intensity at middepth. ©2010 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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