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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1988-01-01
    Print ISSN: 1436-8730
    Electronic ISSN: 1522-2624
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-13
    Description: Large areas of land are restored with unweathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P) is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils, as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites, the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC) in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES) with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition, we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5 × 10 cm) with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P concentrations. In the high-density samplings, we excavated soil-cubes of 10 × 10 × 10 cm size from the topsoil of 3 mini-plot areas (50 × 50 cm) each on the ES and the CCC on which L. corniculatus had been planted (ES) or occurred spontaneously (CCC) and for each cube separated the soil attached to the roots (root-adjacent soil) from the remaining soil (root-distant soil). Root length density was negatively correlated with labile P (resin-extractable P) in the root-distant soil of the CCC plots and with water-soluble P in the root-distant soil of the ES plots. The results suggest that P depletion by root uptake during plant growth soon overrode the effect of preferential root allocation in the relationship between root density and plant-available soil P heterogeneity.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Carbohydrates ; Picea abies ; Growth ; Leaf area index
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This is the first in a series of papers on the growth, photosynthetic rate, water and nutrient relations, root distribution and mycorrhizal frequency of two Norway spruce forests at different stages of decline. One of the stands was composed of green trees only while the other included trees ranging in appearance from full green crowns to thin crowns with yellow needles. In this paper we compare the growth and carbohydrate relations of the two stands and examine relationships among growth variables in ten plots. The declining stand produced 65 percent of the wood per ground area compared with the stand in which all trees were green because its foliage produced less wood at any level of leaf area index. The difference in foliage efficiency between the sites could not be explained by differeneces in climate, competition or stand structure. The declining stand appeared to have lower carbon gain as indicated by a smaller increase in reserve carbohydrates before bud break, and weaker sinks for carbohydrates as indicated by less use of the stored carbohydrates than the healthy stand. Thus, growth reduction was probably related to factors which affect both photosynthesis and, even more, the sinks for carbohydrate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline, Spruce (Picea abies) ; Nitrogen ; Magnesium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A declining Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand produced as much foliage and branches as a healthy stand but less stemwood at a similar leaf area index and climate. Nutrient analyses revealed that most biomass components at the declining site had lower concentrations of calcium and magnesium, but similar nitrogen and potassium (except for lower potassium in younger needles) and higher phosphorus, manganese and aluminum than the respective components at the healthy site. Comparison of these data with the results from studies on the nutrition and growth of P. abies seedlings (Ingestad 1959) led to the conclusion that the healthy stand is in a balanced nutritional state, while trees at the declining stand have only 56% of the foliar magnesium concentration required to permit growth at a rate which could be achieved at their nitrogen status. It appears that acidic deposition, which involves an input of nitrogen and a leaching of cations from the soil, causes an imbalance in the availability of nitrogen and magnesium. Growth is eventually reduced as magnesium becomes limiting.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Forest decline ; Ectomycorrhizas ; Fine roots ; Picea abies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The development of root tips and apparent ectomycorrhizas was compared in the Fichtelgebirge (FRG) over one growing season in two 30-year-old Picea abies stands, both on soils derived from phyllite but showing varying symptoms of decline. Visual symptoms of tree decline reflected a lower relative and absolute mycorrhizal frequency, a lower number of ectomycorrhizas per m2 leaf area and an uneven vertical distribution of root tips and ectomycorrhizas. The number of apparent ectomycorrhizas per ground area was correlated with the amount of magnesium, calcium, and ammonium, and the pH in the free-drainage soil solution, and with the molar calcium to aluminium ratio in mineral soil extracts. The foliage concentrations of magnesium and calcium were correlated with the numbers of apparent ectomycorrhizas per m2 leaf or ground area. These observations were used to formulate testable hypotheses concerning the role of the root system and the soil environment in forest decline.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: decomposition ; forest reclamation ; mine spoil ; N-enriched rock powder ; organic matter production ; rock powder
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of a slow-release N-enriched rock powder on soil chemistry, on the development of the soil vegetation (field layer vegetation), on the nutritional status of pine seedlings (Pinus sylvestris L.), and on decomposition rates of cellulose in lignite-poor mine spoils were studied. In the initial phase after afforestation fertilization caused a significant increase in NO3 −-N concentrations in the soil solution of the top-soil (0–60 cm). Subsequently, NO3 −-N concentrations of all N fertilized treatments decreased with the exception of the highest N application area (500 kg N ha−1). This decrease of NO3 −-N concentrations was related to the establishment of a field layer vegetation, which developed according to the amount of N applied. In the above-ground phytomass of the field layer vegetation a maximum N accumulation amount of 22 kg ha−1 was measured. Cellulose decomposition increased with higher N application rates. In the second year after N-fertilization, the pine needles indicated insufficient supply for almost all nutrients except for N. The deficiency symptoms were most pronounced at the plots that had received the highest amounts of nitrogen. This phenomenon appears to be related to the competition by the field layer vegetation.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The effect of various Mg-fertilizers (MgSO4; calcined dolomite) on root growth and mineral composition of 40 yr old Norway spruce at different sites and stages of decline was studied. Two years after fertilization, density of living fine roots of Mg-deficient trees had significantly increased on fertilized compared to non-fertilized plots. Only fertilization of calcined dolomite appeared to induce new root formation in the upper mineral soil. No such changes were observed for healthy looking trees at a second experimental site, where base saturation of the bulk soil was also low but trees were sufficiently supplied with Mg. At the third experimental site where foliar analyses reflected a luxurious Ca and Mg but an insufficient K nutrition at high Mg and Ca saturation of the bulk soil, calcined dolomite caused an increase of root growth due to a reinforced antagonism between Ca and Mg competing with K uptake. In general, at the experimental sites the fine root necromass decreased when base saturation of the bulk soil increased. The elemental contents of fine roots from the mineral soil of all three sites under investigation indicated that fine root growth in the mineral soil is strongly related to the root Ca and Mg contents. Root Ca contents seemed to be mainly a function of the Ca availability in the soil. Since there was no close relationship between fine root growth and the Ca/AI molar ratio in living fine roots, Al toxicity may not completely account for the differences in root growth and nutrition on the experimental sites.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Element composition of leaves and wood from healthy and declining beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) growing on SO2-polluted sites in the NE-Bavarian Mountains was studied. The wood and foliar Mg contents was significantly lower for declining than for healthy beech. Within the period between 1956 and 1985 the Mg concentrations in year rings of moderately damaged (declining site) and healthy beech declined significantly. No such change was observed for severely damaged beech (declining site), indicating that the Mg supply of those trees had reached a minimum already before 1956. Symptoms of forest decline, however, appeared first in the late seventies and early eighties. It is assumed that the decrease of the Mg concentration in year rings of healthy and moderately declining trees during the past three decades was caused by increasing acid emissions. The significant increase of the wood S contents especially at the declining high elevation site confirms this assumption.The decrease of the wood Mg contents was paralleled by a decrease of the annual increments in diameter for healthy and declining beech, which started in 1972 and became accelerated in 1976. The reduction of growth in the early seventies at the high elevation site coincided with an elongation of chimneys at power stations and steel works and higher filtering of basic dust relative to acid emissions. In the extremely hot and dry summer 1976 drought and a drastical drop of soil pH due to an excess nitrification are supposed to have accelerated the declining of growth and Mg availability. We, therefore, believe that the long-term acid input and the accelerated soil internal H+ production due to an excess nitrification are mainly responsible for the sustained symptoms of forest decline in the NE-Bavarian Mountains during the late seventies and early eighties.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The effect of various Mg-fertilizers (MgSO4; calcined dolomite) on root growth and mineral composition of 40 yr old Norway spruce at different sites and stages of decline was studied. Two years after fertilization, density of living fine roots of Mg-deficient trees had significantly increased on fertilized compared to non-fertilized plots. Only fertilization of calcined dolomite appeared to induce new root formation in the upper mineral soil. No such changes were observed for healthy looking trees at a second experimental site, where base saturation of the bulk soil was also low but trees were sufficiently supplied with Mg. At the third experimental site where foliar analyses reflected a luxurious Ca and Mg but an insufficient K nutrition at high Mg and Ca saturation of the bulk soil, calcined dolomite caused an increase of root growth due to a reinforced antagonism between Ca and Mg competing with K uptake. In general, at the experimental sites the fine root necromass decreased when base saturation of the bulk soil increased. The elemental contents of fine roots from the minenal soil of all three sites under investigation indicated that fine root growth in the mineral soil is strongly related to the root Ca and Mg contents. Root Ca contents seemed to be mainly a function of the Ca availability in the soil. Since there was no close relationship between fine root growth and the Ca/Al molar ratio in living fine roots, Al toxicity may not completely account for the differences in root growth and nutrition on the experimental sites.
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