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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: nature-like bypass-channels ; Stizostedion lucioperca ; movement ; colonisation ; radio telemetry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This radio telemetry study is part of a large interdisciplinary research program on the colonisation and development of the Marchfeldkanal(MFK)-system, a man made channel. The immigration of fishes into the MFK is dependent on the effectiveness of fish bypass channels at several weirs. To investigate the efficiency of the lower most fishway we estimated the population densities along the MFK-system and below the weirs using electrofishing. In addition, the movements of 15 radio-tagged pike-perch at the fishway were observed. Although more than 57000 fishes of 35 species passed the bypass channel, pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca) were under-represented in the fishway traps compared to their occurrence in the channel. The average daily movement of radio-tagged pike-perch was 108 m (range 6–333 m) and the maximum observed daily movement was 1050 m. The entrance to the bypass channel (280 m below the weir, and 100 m above the release site) was approached a number of times by 6 tagged fish, though none of them entered the bypass channel during the period of tracking. We conclude that although pike-perch migrate actively they do not utilise the bypass channel as much as most fish species of the MFK. Therefore the weir still represents a bottleneck for the immigration of pike-perch into the MFK.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: ecological integrity ; running waters ; fish ecology ; extended serial discontinuity concept ; connectivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Current ecological theories and concepts describe running waters as four-dimensional systems, their longitudinal, lateral and vertical linkages, interactions and exchange processes varying over time and over different scales. According to Ward & Stanford's (1983) extended serial discontinuity concept (ESDC), along a three-reach river, model the relative strength of the longitudinal pathways is highest in the constrained headwaters, vertical interactions reach their maximum in the braided middle course and lateral connectivity plays the major role in alluvial floodplain rivers. The present paper examines the general tenets of the ESDC from a fundamental fish ecology perspective. Specifically, it focuses on the degree to which the spatial/temporal connectivity requirements of fish communities or key fish species along a schematic longitudinal river course are compatible with the underlying principles of the ESDC and whether these requirements provide basic criteria for assessing the ecological integrity of running waters. From the fish ecological perspective, the examples provided here demonstrate a principle agreement with the concept of the four-dimensional nature of running waters, whose key functional and structural elements are spatial/temporal fluvial dynamics, disturbances, connectivity, succession and ecotones. Fish are particularly useful indicators of the temporally variable connectivities on the full range of scales at the three spatial dimensions. As far as the habitat requirements of typical species/developmental stages are concerned, two major modifications of the ESDC are needed. In constrained headwaters, in addition to longitudinal connectivity, the crucial importance of the vertical pathway river/bed sediments for reproduction must be emphasized. Also, in addition to lateral connectivity, longitudinal connectivity remains a vital basis for potamal fish communities in alluvial braided and meandering zones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 303 (1995), S. 183-194 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: river restoration ; revitalization ; river management ; ecological improvement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An analysis of restoration projects carried out both in Austria and abroad shows that most projects are limited to design measures within the river bed with the general intention to increase habitat diversity. The various measures are not based on the type-specific characteristics of the river and thus there is a danger of creating uniform restoration stretches, independent of the specific landscape area, river morphology, discharge regime or site specific biocoenoses. Such proceeding lacks in considering a comprehensive improvement of ecological functioning of the whole river-system. To meet those demands a type-specific guiding view (‘Leitbild’) has to be developed based on the pristine river conditions. The comparison of the river pattern including the characteristic features of its unmodified state with the actual situation leads to a comprehensive set of measures. The essential goals of such management-concepts are the integrity of the river habitat, self-regulation and self-regeneration, the preservation of intact resources, as well as the possibility to experience the uniqueness, diversity and beauty of natural river landscapes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: river restoration ; instream structures ; land/water ecotone ; fish fauna
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Investigations of fifteen sections of seven Austrian epipotamal (barbel region) streams between 1981 and 1984 demonstrate the impact of instream river bed structures on fish communities. Reduced spatial heterogeneity due to river straightening resulted in decreasing species number, diversity, stock density and biomass. Reincreased variability of the river bed in the frame of a subsequent restructuring project improved all community-specific values significantly within a 3-year investigation period (1988–1990). Besides the regained habitat variability in form of riffle pool sequences and other instream structures, the newly created riparian zones obviously provided important niches, e.g. as refuge areas during flooding and as nursery grounds for fish fry. The positive effects of the recreated land/water ecotone are discussed with respect to river restoration projects.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: water quality ; assessment criteria ; biological hierarchy ; reference conditions ; MuLFA ; Austria ; Europe
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We propose a multi-level concept for fish-based assessment (MuLFA) of the ecological integrity of running waters. This concept is designed for large-scale monitoring programmes such as required for the proposed Water Framework Directive of the EU. Out of five different biological organisation levels (fauna, community, guild, population and individual), we propose seven criteria: River-type-specific species, species with self-sustaining populations, fish region, number of guilds, guild composition, population size and population age structure. The principle of the MuLFA is based on assessing the deviation from undisturbed reference conditions. Reference conditions have to be compiled for every distinct river type using historical fish and abiotic data, present river-type-specific reference sites and reference models. The final assessment procedure is done by comparing the assessment reach with the reference conditions using a 5-tiered normative scheme and assigning that reach to the level of highest coincidence. The benefit of the MuLFA is its potential for consistent sensitivity to low- and high-dose human alterations, and due to its general character, its adaptability to all river types.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Genetica 74 (1987), S. 69-71 
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The karyotypes of three species of cockatoos, Cacatua moluccensis, Cacatua goffini, and Cacatua sanguinea, and one Amazon parrot, Amazona aestiva, are described for the first time. These karyotypes are compared to the twenty-three species of psittacines published previously. Cacatua moluccensis appears to be a link in the evolutionary tree between Probosciger aterrimus and the other cockatoo species studied. This study reaffirms that the cockatoos are probably most closely related to the loris (Loriculus sp.) and Amazon parrots based on karyotype (M. W. M. Van Dongen & L. E. M. De Boer, (Genetica 65: 109–117) 1984).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bovine gene mapping is progressing rapidly using syntenic group mapping based on somatic cell hybrids and linkage, and to a lesser extent on in situ hybridization. Single chromosome DNA libraries are a logical next step, and this was, therefore, the aim of our laboratory. Since we have access to several cattle with t(1;29) and this chromosome is readily distinguishable, we chose this as our first target—recognizing that we would not produce a “single” chromosome library in the strict sense because two autosomes are represented. We utilized an inverted microscope and a micromanipulator fitted with glass instruments pulled specifically to dissect off approximately 100 t(1:29) chromosomes per microdrop. A glass chamber made to accommodate a hanging drop was used to extract the DNA under a dissecting microscope. The DNA was then cleaved with EcoRI and inserted in λgtwes arms. Host cells were then infected with these phage and positive clones obtained. The first clone, isolated from this library by hybridization with a human collagen 6A1 cDNA, was mapped by in situ hybridization to bovine Chromosome (Chr) 1q12–q14, near the centromere. The second clone, an anonymous DNA fragment (D1S11), was mapped to 1q43–q46, near the terminal end.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Five Charolais families known to segregate for both horned and polled were selected and tested for linkage analysis by use of microsatellites and karyotyping for Robertsonian translocation 1;29. No recombinants were found between any of these markers and the polled phenotype or each other. When statistical analysis was performed, the logarithm of the odds (LOD) indicated that there was 100% linkage occurring between the markers and the phenotype (p〈0.001). These microsatellite markers, TGLA49 and BM6438, can be assumed to be very close to the actual gene that determines the polled phenotype. Another linked marker, SOD1, was physically mapped, which places all of these markers within 1q12–14, very near the centromere of Chromosome (Chr) 1. A homozygous polled cow was identified in this study by following the alleles at both markers and the phenotypes in her family.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 72 (1986), S. 253-255 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Isochromosomes are chromosomes with genetically identical arms. Chromosomes morphologically similar to isochromosomes can arise from alternative mechanisms: wholearm translocations and crossing over within inversion loops. Cases are presented which could have arisen by each of these latter two mechanisms. The first case is 46,XX,t(15;15) (qtercen-qter; pter-cen-pter) and the second 46,XY,rec(18), dup q,inv(18)(p11.32q11.2).
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