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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    New York [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: PIK N 456-93-0193
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XV, 424 S. : zahlr. Ill.
    ISBN: 0387973591 , 3-540-97359-1
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Sail moisture data were taken during nine sampling events (1976-1978) at a test site in South Dakota as part of the ground truth used in NASA's aircraft experiments studying the microwave sensing of soil moisture. This portion of the study dealt only with the spatial variability observed with regard to the ground data. Samples were taken over three surface depths at each point, and the data reported as the mean field moisture content within each of three surface horizons. The results shed additional light on the relationship between ground sampling and remote sensing of soil moisture. First, it was found that it is best to partition data of well drained sites from poorly drained areas when attempting to characterize the surface moisture content throughout an area of varying soil and cover conditions. It was also found that the moisture coefficient of variation within a field decreased as the mean field soil moisture increased, and that the standard deviation was at a maximum in the mid-range of observed moisture conditions (15-25 percent). Within field sample variation also decreases as the sample is integrated over a greater surface depth. It was determined that a sampling intensity of 10 samples per kilometer was adequate to characterize the mean field soil moisture at all three depths along a transect in the areas of moderate to good drainage-.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: Large area soil moisture estimations are required to describe input to cloud prediction models, rainfall distribution models, and global crop yield models. Satellite mounted microwave sensor systems that as yet can only detect moisture at the surface have been suggested as a means of acquiring large area estimates. Relations previously discovered between microwave emission at the 1.55 cm wavelength and surface moisture as represented by an antecedent precipitation index were used to provide a pseudo infiltration estimation. Infiltration estimates based on surface wetness on a daily basis were then used to calculate the soil moisture in the surface 0–23 cm of the soil by use of a modified antecedent precipitation index. Reasonably good results were obtained (R2= 0.7162) when predicted soil moisture for the surface 23 cm was compared to measured moisture. Where the technique was modified to use only an estimate of surface moisture each three days an R2 value of 0.7116 resulted for the same data set. Correlations between predicted and actual soil moisture fall off rapidly for repeat observations more than three days apart. The algorithms developed in this study may be used over relatively flat agricultural lands to provide improved estimates of soil moisture to a depth greater than the depth of penetration for the sensor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The NASA Langley Research Center's L-band pushbroom microwave radiometer (PBMR) aboard the NASA C-130 aircraft was used to map surface soil moisture at and around the Konza Prairie Natural Research Area in Kansas during the four intensive field campaigns of FIFE in May-October 1987. There was a total of 11 measurements was made when soils were known to be saturated. This measurement was used for the calibration of the vegetation effect on the microwave absorption. Based on this calibration, the data from other measurements on other days were inverted to generate the soil moisture maps. Good agreement was found when the estimated soil moisture values were compared to those independently measured on the ground at a number of widely separated locations. There was a slight bias between the estimated and measured values, the estimated soil moisture on the average being lower by about 1.8 percent. This small bias, however, was accounted for by the difference in time of the radiometric measurements and the soil moisture ground sampling.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 28; 906-914
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A simple model is developed to represent the net effect of surface roughness on the microwave emission from soils. The reflectivity of a rough soil surface is defined in a theoretical model that includes both coherent and incoherent reflectivities in terms of the statistical properties of the rough surface, i.e., the surface height standard deviation and its horizontal correlation length. It is shown that the rough surface reflectivity obtained from this theoretical model can be presented in a form that is simply the reflectivity of a smooth surface attenuated by a 'rough thickness'. It is found that the rough thickness can be parameterized as a function of the statistical slope ratio of a rough surface by a simple power-law relationship. Since the slope of a rough surface can be determined experimentally, the rough thickness can be quantitatively estimated from the parametric representation. Model calculations show that this simple model can provide reasonably accurate results of predicted brightness temperatures that agree well with field measurements within experimental uncertainty.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-25; 481-486
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A NASA C-130 airborne remote sensing aircraft was used to obtain four-beam pushbroom microwave radiometric measurements over two small Kansas tall-grass prairie region watersheds, during a dry-down period after heavy rainfall in May and June, 1987. While one of the watersheds had been burned 2 months before these measurements, the other had not been burned for over a year. Surface soil-moisture data were collected at the time of the aircraft measurements and correlated with the corresponding radiometric measurements, establishing a relationship for surface soil-moisture mapping. Radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture variation is higher in the burned than in the unburned watershed; surface soil moisture loss is also faster in the burned watershed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 27; 305-311
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Measurements performed with SIR-B at 1.28 GHz and an airborne multiple-beam push-broom radiometer at 1.4 GHz over agricultural fields near Fresno, California are examined. A theoretical model (Kirchhoff approximation) was used to assess the effects of surface roughness and vegetation (alfalfa and lettuce) with respect to the responses of microwave emission and backscatter to soil-moisture variations. It is found that the surface roughness plays a dominant role compared to the vegetation cover in the microwave backscatter.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-25; 825-833
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The use of dual-frequency data of backscattering coefficients at a fixed angle to estimate surface roughness parameters is evaluated. Radar backscattering coefficients at 1.5 and 4.25 GHz are calculated using a model based on Kirchhoff approximation of electromagnetic wave scatttering from a rough soil surface. Plots of the calculated backscattering coefficients for Kansas soil moisture contents at the C- and L-band frequencies and HH polarization are analyzed. The effects of changes in correlation length on the backscattering coefficients are investigated. The calculated backscattering coefficients are compared with scatterometer data collected at 1.5 and 4.25 GHz, and it is detected that the model and field data correlate well. The data reveal that it is possible to retrieve the surface roughness parameters from measured radar data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The authors discuss the feasibility of determining the surface flux of sensible heat from forests with surface temperatures measured by satellites together with temperature soundings in the unstable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The latent heat flux is derived from the sensible heat flux by means of the energy budget. The study makes use of data collected during HAPEX-MOBILHY (Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modelization du Bilan Hydrique). The methodology is based on turbulence similarity for the unstable ABL. The surface temperature data were derived from measurements by the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the NOAA-9 satellite; the atmospheric profiles were obtained by radiosondes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1505-1507.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: Accurate, spatially distributed surface temperatures are required for modeling evapotranspiration (ET) over agricultural fields under wide ranging conditions, including stressed and unstressed vegetation. Modeling approaches that use surface temperature observations, however, have the burden of estimating surface emissivities. Emissivity estimation, the subject of much recent research, is facilitated by observations in multiple thermal infrared bands. But it is nevertheless a difficult task. Using observations from a multiband thermal sensor, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), estimated surface emissivities and temperatures are retrieved in two different ways: the temperature emissivity separation approach (TES) and the normalized emissivity approach (NEM). Both rely upon empirical relationships, but the assumed relationships are different. TES relies upon a relationship between the minimum spectral emissivity and the range of observed emissivities. NEM relies upon an assumption that at least one thermal band has a pre-determined emissivity (close to 1.0). The benefits and consequences of each approach will be demonstrated for two different landscapes: one in central Oklahoma, USA and another in southern New Mexico.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: SPIE Symposium: Remote Sensing for Agriculture Ecosystems and Hydrology IV; Sep 22, 2002 - Sep 27, 2002; Agia Pelagia, Crete; Greece
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