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  • 1
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : Results from studies in the Illinois-Indiana and Texas-Oklahoma areas indicate that satellite microwave observations at the 1.55 cm wavelength are responsive to relative moisture variations in the near surface layer of the soil. Because significant vegetation cover absorbs the 1.55 cm microwave emission from the soil, the target area must be predominately bare soil or low density vegetation cover for meaningful measurements to result. The 25 km resolution of the satellite sensor limits application of the microwave techniques to large areas such as watersheds or agricultural districts rather than individual fields. In general, at 1.55 cm. there is an inverse relationship between microwave brightness temperature and changes in soil moisture levels (as indicated by antecedent rainfall) in agricultural regions before the planting of crops or during the early growing season when vegetation cover is sparse. Even early season observations should be of great value in deciding on the time and type of crop planting and for initial irrigation scheduling when the root zone is still in close proximity to the surface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1752-1688
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Notes: : The average microwave temperature of the watershed surface as detected by an airborne Passive Microwave Imaging Scanner (PMIS) was compared with the measured Soil Conservation Service (SCS) watershed storm runoff coefficient (CN). Previous laboratory work suggested that microwave response to the watershed surface is influenced by some of the same surface characteristics that affect runoff, i.e., soil moisture, surface roughness, vegetative cover, and soil texture. In order to field test and develop relations between runoff potentfal and microwave response, several highly instrumented watersheds of approximately 1.5 to 17 km2 were scanned under wet- and dry-soil conditions in April and June 1973. The polarized (horizontal and vertical) scans at 2.8 cm wavelength provided the data base from which other values were calculated. The best relationship between runoff coefficients (CN) and PMIS temperatures was observed when horizontally polarized temperatures from the near-dormant, early-growing season flight were used. Lower SCS runoff coefficients seem to be correlated with the cross-polarized response under dry watershed conditions late in the growing season and the difference in horizontal polarized response between wet conditions early in the growing season and dry conditions late in the growing season. To apply the results, the relationships need to be verified further.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The application of an electronically steered thinned array L-band radiometer (ESTAR) for soil moisture mapping is investigated over the arid rangeland Walnut Gulch Watershed. Antecedent rainfall and evaporation for the flights are very different and result in a wide range of soil moisture conditions. The high spatial variability of rainfall events within this region results in moisture conditions with dramatic spatial patterns. Sensor performance is verified using two approaches. Microwave data are used in conjunction with a microwave emission model to predict soil moisture. These predictions are compared to ground observations of soil moisture. A second verification is possible using an extensive data set. Both tests showed that the ESTAR is capable of providing soil moisture with the same level of accuracy as existing systems.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 1 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 486-488.
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experiments were conducted to evaluate aircraft remote sensing techniques for hydrology in a wide range of physiographic and climatic regions using several sensor platforms. The data were collected in late 1978 and during 1979 in two humid areas--Taylor Creek, Fla., and Little River, Ga. Soil moisture measurements and climatic observations are presented as well as the remote sensing data collected using thermal infrared, passive microwave, and active microwave systems.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ARR-NE-13 , NAS 1.15:85468 , NASA-TM-85468 , E84-10010
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program that simulates the flow of heat and moisture in soils is described. The space-time dependence of temperature and moisture content is described by a set of diffusion-type partial differential equations. The simulator uses a predictor/corrector to numerically integrate them, giving wetness and temperature profiles as a function of time. The simulator was used to generate solutions to diffusion-type partial differential equations for which analytical solutions are known. These equations include both constant and variable diffusivities, and both flux and constant concentration boundary conditions. In all cases, the simulated and analytic solutions agreed to within the error bounds which were imposed on the integrator. Simulations of heat and moisture flow under actual field conditions were also performed. Ground truth data were used for the boundary conditions and soil transport properties. The qualitative agreement between simulated and measured profiles is an indication that the model equations are reasonably accurate representations of the physical processes involved.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:82121 , E83-10342 , NASA-TM-82121 , SM-G1-04086
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Airborne L- and C-band scatterometer data, taken over both vegetation-covered and bare fields, were systematically analyzed and theoretically reproduced, using a recently developed model for calculating radar backscattering coefficients of rough soil surfaces. The results show that the model can reproduce the observed angular variations of radar backscattering coefficient quite well via a least-squares fit method. Best fits to the data provide estimates of the statistical properties of the surface roughness, which is characterized by two parameters: the standard deviation of surface height, and the surface correlation length. In addition, the processes of vegetation attenuation and volume scattering require two canopy parameters, the canopy optical thickness and a volume scattering factor. Canopy parameter values for individual vegetation types, including alfalfa, milo and corn, were also determined from the best-fit results. The uncertainties in the scatterometer data were also explored.
    Keywords: COMMUNICATIONS AND RADAR
    Type: NASA-TM-85070 , NAS 1.15:85070
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A chronology of a major Australian flood in 1974 is presented using Nimbus 5 Passive Microwave Data (ESMR) and other conventional and satellite supporting data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-79689
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The experiment was performed using the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan's (ERIM) dual-frequency and dual-polarization side-looking SAR system on board a C-46 aircraft. For each frequency, horizontally polarized pulses were transmitted and both horizontally and vertically polarized return signals were recorded on the signal film simultaneously. The test sites were located in St. Charles, Missouri; Centralia, Missouri; and Lafayette, Indiana. Each test site was a 4.83 km by 8.05 km (3 mile by 5 mile) rectangular strip of terrain. Concurrent with SAR overflight, ground soil samples of 0-to-2.5 cm and 0-to-15 cm layers were collected for soil moisture estimation. The surface features were also noted. Hard-copy image films and the digital data produced via optical processing of the signal films are analyzed in this report to study the relationship of radar backscatter to the moisture content and the surface roughness. Many difficulties associated with processing and analysis of the SAR imagery are noted. In particular, major uncertainty in the quantitative analysis appeared due to the difficulty of quality reproduction of digital data from the signal films.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1404 , G-7802-F21
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effect of surface roughness on the brightness temperature of a moist terrain was studied through the modification of Fresnel reflection coefficient and using the radiative transfer equation. Model calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the observed dependence of the brightness temperature on the moisture content in the surface layer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71282 , X-913-76-265
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aircraft observations of the surface temperature were made by measurements of the thermal emission in the 8-14 micrometers band over agricultural fields around Phoenix, Arizona. The diurnal range of these surface temperature measurements were well correlated with the ground measurement of soil moisture in the 0-2 cm layer. The surface temperature observations for vegetated fields were found to be within 1 or 2 C of the ambient air temperature indicating no moisture stress. These results indicate that for clear atmospheric conditions remotely sensed surface temperatures are a reliable indicator of soil moisture conditions and crop status.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: X-913-77-13 , NASA-TM-X-71274
    Format: application/pdf
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