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  • 1
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature Geoscience, 11 (7). pp. 467-473.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Direct observations indicate that the global ocean oxygen inventory is decreasing. Climate models consistently confirm this decline and predict continuing and accelerating ocean deoxygenation. However, current models (1) do not reproduce observed patterns for oxygen changes in the ocean’s thermocline; (2) underestimate the temporal variability of oxygen concentrations and air–sea fluxes inferred from time-series observations; and (3) generally simulate only about half the oceanic oxygen loss inferred from observations. We here review current knowledge about the mechanisms and drivers of oxygen changes and their variation with region and depth over the world’s oceans. Warming is considered a major driver: in part directly, via solubility effects, and in part indirectly, via changes in circulation, mixing and oxygen respiration. While solubility effects have been quantified and found to dominate deoxygenation near the surface, a quantitative understanding of contributions from other mechanisms is still lacking. Current models may underestimate deoxygenation because of unresolved transport processes, unaccounted for variations in respiratory oxygen demand, or missing biogeochemical feedbacks. Dedicated observational programmes are required to better constrain biological and physical processes and their representation in models to improve our understanding and predictions of patterns and intensity of future oxygen change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 18464 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Production and dispersion of coccolithophores are assessed within their ecologic and hydrographic context across enhanced spring chlorophyll production in the surface eastern North Atlantic. Within a 4 day period from 12 to 16 March 2004, a N-S transect from 47 degrees N to 33 degrees N was sampled along 20 degrees W. Water samples from defined depths down to 200 m were analyzed for coccolithophores from 0.45 mu m polycarbonate filters by scanning electron microscopy. At 47 degrees N coccolithophores flourished when euphotic conditions allowed new production at deep mixing, low temperatures, and high nutrient concentrations. Emiliania huxleyi flourished at high turbulence during an early stage of the phytoplankton succession and contributed half of the total coccolithophore assemblage, with up to 150 x 10(3) cells L(-1) and up to 12 x 10(9) cells m(-2) when integrated over the upper 200 m of the water column. Maximum chlorophyll concentrations occurred just north of the Azores Front, at 37 degrees N-39 degrees N, at comparatively low numbers of coccolithophores. To the south, at 35 degrees N-33 degrees N, coccolithophores were abundant within calm and stratified Subtropical Mode Waters, and E. huxleyi was the dominant species again. Although the cell densities of coccolithophores observed here remained below those typical of plankton blooms visible from satellite images, the depth-integrated total mass makes them significant producers of calcite and contributors to the total carbon sedimentation at a much wider range of ecological conditions during late winter and early spring than hitherto assumed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: During the CINDY–DYNAMO field campaign of September 2011–January 2012, a Seaglider was deployed at 80°E and completed 10 north-south sections between 3 and 4°S, measuring temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, and chlorophyll fluorescence. These high-resolution subsurface observations provide insight into equatorial ocean Rossby wave activity forced by three Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events during this time period. These Rossby waves generate variability in temperature O(1°C), salinity O(0.2 g kg−1), density O(0.2 kg m−3), and oxygen concentration O(10 μmol kg−1), associated with 10 m vertical displacements of the thermocline. The variability extends down to 1000 m, the greatest depth of the Seaglider observations, highlighting the importance of surface forcing for the deep equatorial ocean. The temperature variability observed by the Seaglider is greater than that simulated in the ECCO-JPL reanalysis, especially at depth. There is also marked variability in chlorophyll fluorescence at the surface and at the depth of the chlorophyll maximum. Upwelling from Rossby waves and local wind stress curl leads to an enhanced shoaling of the chlorophyll maximum by 10–25 m in response to the increased availability of nutrients and light. This influence of the MJO on primary production via equatorial ocean Rossby waves has not previously been recognized.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-24
    Description: A surface diurnal warm layer is diagnosed from Seaglider observations, and develops on half the days in the CINDY/DYNAMO Indian Ocean experiment. The diurnal warm layer occurs on days of high solar radiation flux (〉 80 W m−2) and low wind speed (〈 6 m s−1), and preferentially in the inactive stage of the Madden–Julian Oscillation. Its diurnal harmonic has an exponential vertical structure with a depth scale of 4–5 m (dependent on chlorophyll concentration), consistent with forcing by absorption of solar radiation. The effective sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly due to the diurnal warm layer often reaches 0.8°C in the afternoon, with a daily mean of 0.2°C, rectifying the diurnal cycle onto longer time scales. This SST anomaly drives an anomalous flux of 4 W m−2 that cools the ocean. Alternatively, in a climate model where this process is unresolved, this represents an erroneous flux that warms the ocean. A simple model predicts a diurnal warm layer to occur on 30–50% of days across the tropical warm pool. On the remaining days, with low solar radiation and high wind speeds, a residual diurnal cycle is observed by the Seaglider, with a diurnal harmonic of temperature that decreases linearly with depth. As wind speed increases, this already weak temperature gradient decreases further, tending towards isothermal conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group
    In:  Nature Geoscience, 7 . pp. 879-884.
    Publication Date: 2017-02-20
    Description: The exchange of water masses across the Antarctic continental shelf break regulates the export of dense shelf waters to depth as well as the transport of warm, mid-depth waters towards ice shelves and glacial grounding lines1. The penetration of the warmer mid-depth waters past the shelf break has been implicated in the pronounced loss of ice shelf mass over much of west Antarctica2, 3, 4. In high-resolution, regional circulation models, the Antarctic shelf break hosts an energetic mesoscale eddy field5, 6, but observations that capture this mesoscale variability have been limited. Here we show, using hydrographic data collected from ocean gliders, that eddy-induced transport is a primary contributor to mass and property fluxes across the slope. Measurements along ten cross-shelf hydrographic sections show a complex velocity structure and a stratification consistent with an onshore eddy mass flux. We show that the eddy transport and the surface wind-driven transport make comparable contributions to the total overturning circulation. Eddy-induced transport is concentrated in the warm, intermediate layers away from frictional boundaries. We conclude that understanding mesoscale dynamics will be critical for constraining circumpolar heat fluxes and future rates of retreat of Antarctic ice shelves.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    In:  [Paper] In: 2012 IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), 24.-27.09.2012, Southampton, UK . 2012 IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) ; pp. 1-7 .
    Publication Date: 2014-10-21
    Description: Over the last couple of decades, autonomous underwater vehicles have become a powerful tool in the investigation of biological, chemical and physical oceanography. Not only do they complement existing technologies, they open up new avenues of investigation through their specific capabilities. For AUVs to benefit from the same success other long term monitoring platforms have had (moorings, ARGO), it is critical to understand their limits in both monitoring and process studies. We present results from several Seaglider deployments by the University of East Anglia where Seagliders were pushed to the limit of their abilities. Comparison of missions in extreme conditions at the limits of their depth range (70 to 1000 m) and battery life shows a need for tailored survey design and flight parameters in order to maximise mission duration, control over the Seaglider and most efficient science sampling. In particular, we look at post-processing of Seaglider data and present aspects of a new MATLAB toolbox which greatly improves on timestamp correction of Seaglider data by accounting for errors introduced by using a single thread processor.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 118 (4). pp. 1658-1672.
    Publication Date: 2014-10-21
    Description: A monthly, isopycnal/mixed-layer ocean climatology (MIMOC), global from 0 to 1950 dbar, is compared with other monthly ocean climatologies. All available quality-controlled profiles of temperature (T) and salinity (S) versus pressure (P) collected by conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instruments from the Argo Program, Ice-Tethered Profilers, and archived in the World Ocean Database are used. MIMOC provides maps of mixed layer properties (conservative temperature, Θ, absolute salinity, SA, and maximum P) as well as maps of interior ocean properties (Θ, SA, and P) to 1950 dbar on isopycnal surfaces. A third product merges the two onto a pressure grid spanning the upper 1950 dbar, adding more familiar potential temperature (θ) and practical salinity (S) maps. All maps are at monthly 0.5° × 0.5° resolution, spanning from 80°S to 90°N. Objective mapping routines used and described here incorporate an isobath-following component using a “Fast Marching” algorithm, as well as front-sharpening components in both the mixed layer and on interior isopycnals. Recent data are emphasized in the mapping. The goal is to compute a climatology that looks as much as possible like synoptic surveys sampled circa 2007–2011 during all phases of the seasonal cycle, minimizing transient eddy and wave signatures. MIMOC preserves a surface mixed layer, minimizes both diapycnal and isopycnal smoothing of θ-S, as well as preserves density structure in the vertical (pycnoclines and pycnostads) and the horizontal (fronts and their associated currents). It is statically stable and resolves water mass features, fronts, and currents with a high level of detail and fidelity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, Special supplement (7). S157-S160.
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: [in “State of the Climate in 2014” : Special Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Vol. 96, No. 7, July 2015]
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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