ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Conclusions The calibration by Blundy and Holland is not a calibration of the reaction albite + tremolite = edenite + 4quartz, because the AlIV content of amphiboles is a combined result of $$\vec tk - ,{\text{ }}\vec ed - {\text{ and }}\vec pl - $$ substitutions. The requirements for a calibration of any of these substitutions are: (1) an amphibole-activity model unequivocally accounting for each substitution and (2) a data-set, wherein all amphiboles are buffered by the same assemblages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Al-in-hornblende barometer, which correlates Altot content of magmatic hornblende linearly with crystallization pressure of intrusion (Hammarstrom and Zen 1986), has been calibrated experimentally under water-saturated conditions at pressures of 2.5–13 kbar and temperatures of 700–655°C. Equilibration of the assemblage hornlende-biotite-plagioclase-orthoclasequartz-sphene-Fe-Ti-oxide-melt-vapor from a natural tonalite 15–20° above its wet solidus results in hornblende compositions which can be fit by the equation: P(±0.6 kbar) = −3.01 + 4.76 Al hbl tot r 2=0.99, where Altot is the total Al content of hornblende in atoms per formula unit (apfu). Altot increase with pressure can be ascribed mainly to a tschermak-exchange ( $$t\vec k,{\text{ Mg}}_{{\text{ - 1 }}} {\text{Al}}^{{\text{VI}}} {\text{Si}}_{{\text{ - 1}}} {\text{ Al}}^{{\text{IV}}}$$ ) accompanied by minor plagioclase-substitution ( $$\vec pl,{\text{ Ca}}_{{\text{ - 1 }}} {\text{Na}}^{{\text{M(4)}}} {\text{ Al}}_{{\text{ - 1}}}^{{\text{IV}}} {\text{ Si}}$$ ). This experimental calibration agrees well with empirical field calibrations, wherein pressures are estimated by contact-aureole barometry, confirming that contact-aureole pressures and pressures calculated by the Al-in-hornblende barometer are essentially identical. This calibration is also consistent with the previous experimental calibration by Johnson and Rutherford (1989b) which was accomplished at higher temperatures, stabilizing the required buffer assemblage by use of mixed H2O-CO2 fluids. The latter calibration yields higher Altot content in hornblendes at corresponding pressures, this can be ascribed to increased edenite-exchange ( $$\vec ed,{\text{ }}\square _{{\text{ }} - {\text{ }}1}^{ A} {\text{ Na}}^{\text{A}} {\text{Si }}_{ - {\text{ }}1} {\text{Al}}^{{\text{IV}}}$$ ) at elevated temperatures. The comparison of both experimental calibrations shows the important influence of the fluid composition, which affects the solidus temperature, on equilibration of hornblende in the buffering phase assemblage.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fluids and melts liberated from subducting oceanic crust recycle lithophile elements back into the mantle wedge, facilitate melting and ultimately lead to prolific subduction-zone arc volcanism. The nature and composition of the mobile phases generated in the subducting slab at high pressures ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0084-6597
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The subducted lithosphere is composed of a complex pattern of chemical systems that undergo continuous and discontinuous phase transformation, through pressure and temperature variations. Volatile recycling plays a major geodynamic role in triggering mass transfer, melting, and volcanism. Although buoyancy forces are controlled by modal amounts of the most abundant phases, usually volatile-free, petrogenesis and chemical differentiation are controlled by the occurrence of minor phases, most of them volatile-bearing. Devolatilization of the subducted lithosphere is a continuous process distributed over more than 300 km of the slab-mantle interface. Melting of the subducted crust, if any, along sufficiently hot P-T paths, is governed by fluid-absent reactions, even though the difference between fluid and melt vanishes at pressures above the second critical end point. The density distribution at a depth of 660 km suggests episodic penetration in space and time of subducted slabs into the lower mantle and sinking down to the D" region at the core-mantle boundary.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-03-27
    Description: We present field relationships, petrography, and mineral major and trace element data for the Neoproterozoic Dariv Igneous Complex of the Altaids of Western Mongolia. This unique complex of high-K plutonic rocks is composed of well-exposed, km-scale igneous intrusions of wehrlites, phlogopite wehrlites, apatite-bearing phlogopite clinopyroxenites, monzogabbros, monzodiorites, and clinopyroxene-bearing monzonites, all of which are intruded by late stage lamprophyric and aplitic dikes. The biotite-dominated igneous complex intrudes depleted harzburgitic serpentinite. The observed lithological variability and petrographic observations suggest that the plutonic rocks can be ascribed to a fractionation sequence defined by olivine + clinopyroxene ± Fe–Ti oxides → phlogopite + apatite → K-feldspar + plagioclase → amphibole + quartz. Notably, phlogopite is the dominant hydrous mafic mineral. Petrogenesis of the observed lithologies through a common fractionation sequence is supported by a gradual decrease in the Mg# [molar Mg/(Fe_total + Mg) × 100] of mafic minerals. Crystallization conditions are derived from experimental phase petrology and mineral chemistry. The most primitive ultramafic cumulates crystallized at ≤0.5 GPa and 1,210–1,100 °C and oxygen fugacity ( f O_2) of +2–3 ∆FMQ (log units above the fayalite–quartz–magnetite buffer). Trace element modeling using clinopyroxene and apatite rare earth element compositions indicates that the dominant mechanism of differentiation was fractional crystallization. The trace element composition of a parental melt was calculated from primitive clinopyroxene compositions and compares favorably with the compositions of syn-magmatic lamprophyres that crosscut the fractionation sequence. The parental melt composition is highly enriched in Th, U, large ion lithophile elements, and light rare earth elements and has a pronounced negative Nb–Ta depletion, suggestive of an alkaline primitive melt originating from a subduction-imprinted mantle. Comparison with a global compilation of primitive arc melts demonstrates that Dariv primitive melts are similar in composition to high-K primitive melts found in some continental arcs. Thus, the high-K fractionation sequence exposed in the Dariv Igneous Complex may be a previously unrecognized important fractionation sequence resulting in alkali-rich upper crustal granitoids in continental arc settings. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 1992-04-01
    Description: The Al-in-hornblende barometer, which correlates Altot content of magmatic hornblende linearly with crystallization pressure of intrusion (Hammarstrom and Zen 1986), has been calibrated experimentally under water-saturated conditions at pressures of 2.5–13 kbar and temperatures of 700–655°C. Equilibration of the assemblage hornlende-biotite-plagioclase-orthoclasequartz-sphene-Fe-Ti-oxide-melt-vapor from a natural tonalite 15–20° above its wet solidus results in hornblende compositions which can be fit by the equation: P (±0.6 kbar) = −3.01 + 4.76 Al _hbl tot r 2=0.99, where Altot is the total Al content of hornblende in atoms per formula unit (apfu). Altot increase with pressure can be ascribed mainly to a tschermak -exchange ( $$tvec k,{ ext{ Mg}}_{{ ext{ - 1 }}} { ext{Al}}{{ ext{VI}}} { ext{Si}}_{{ ext{ - 1}}} { ext{ Al}}{{ ext{IV}}}$$ ) accompanied by minor plagioclase -substitution ( $$vec pl,{ ext{ Ca}}_{{ ext{ - 1 }}} { ext{Na}}{{ ext{M(4)}}} { ext{ Al}}_{{ ext{ - 1}}}{{ ext{IV}}} { ext{ Si}}$$ ). This experimental calibration agrees well with empirical field calibrations, wherein pressures are estimated by contact-aureole barometry, confirming that contact-aureole pressures and pressures calculated by the Al-in-hornblende barometer are essentially identical. This calibration is also consistent with the previous experimental calibration by Johnson and Rutherford (1989b) which was accomplished at higher temperatures, stabilizing the required buffer assemblage by use of mixed H_2O-CO2 fluids. The latter calibration yields higher Altot content in hornblendes at corresponding pressures, this can be ascribed to increased edenite -exchange ( $$vec ed,{ ext{ }}square _{{ ext{ }} - { ext{ }}1}{ A} { ext{ Na}}{ ext{A}} { ext{Si }}_{ - { ext{ }}1} { ext{Al}}{{ ext{IV}}}$$ ) at elevated temperatures. The comparison of both experimental calibrations shows the important influence of the fluid composition, which affects the solidus temperature, on equilibration of hornblende in the buffering phase assemblage. ©1992 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-11-25
    Description: The time scales and mechanics of gravitationally driven crystal settling and compaction is investigated through high temperature (1,280–1,500 °C) centrifuge-assisted experiments on a chromite-basalt melt system at 100–1,500 g (0.5 GPa). Subsequently, the feasibility of this process for the formation of dense chromite cumulate layers in large layered mafic intrusions (LMIs) is assessed. Centrifugation leads to a single cumulate layer formed at the gravitational bottom of the capsule. The experimentally observed mechanical settling velocity of a suspension of ~24 vol% chromite is calculated to be about half (~0.53) of the Stokes settling velocity, with a sedimentation exponent n of 2.35 (3). Gravitational settling leads to an orthocumulate layer with a porosity of 0.52 (all porosities as fraction). Formation times for such a layer from a magma with initial chromite contents of 0.1–1 vol% are 140–3.5 days, equal to a growth rate of 0.007–0.3 m/day for grain sizes of 1–2 mm. More compacted chromite layers form with increasing centrifugation time and acceleration through chemical compaction: An increase of grain contact areas and grain sizes together with a decrease in porosity is best explained by pressure dissolution at grain contacts, reprecipitation and grain growth into the intergranular space and a concomitant expulsion of intergranular melt. The relation between the porosity in the cumulate pile and effective pressure integrated over time (Δ ρ   ·   h   ·   a   ·   t ) is best fit with a logarithmic function, in fact confirming that a (pressure) dissolution–reprecipitation process is the dominant mechanism of compaction. The experimentally derived equation allows calculating compaction times: 70–80 % chromite at the bottom of a 1-m-thick chromite layer are reached after 9–250 years, whereas equivalent compaction times are 0.2–0.9 years for olivine (both for 2 mm grain size). The experiments allow to determine the bulk viscosities of chromite and olivine cumulates to be of magnitude 109 Pa s, much lower than previously reported. As long as melt escape from the compacting cumulate remains homogeneous, fluidization does not play any role; however, channelized melt flow may lead to suspension and upward movement of cumulate crystals. In LMIs, chromitite layers are typically part of a sequence with layers of mafic minerals, compaction occurs under the additional weight of the overlying layers and can be achieved in a few years to decades. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-08
    Description: Many studies have documented hydrous fractionation of calc-alkaline basalts producing tonalitic, granodioritic, and granitic melts, but the origin of more alkaline arc sequences dominated by high-K monzonitic suites has not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results from a combined field, petrologic, and whole-rock geochemical study of a paleo-arc alkaline fractionation sequence from the Dariv Range of the Mongolian Altaids. The Dariv Igneous Complex of Western Mongolia is composed of a complete, moderately hydrous, alkaline fractionation sequence ranging from phlogopite-bearing ultramafic and mafic cumulates to quartz–monzonites to late-stage felsic (63–75 wt% SiO_2) dikes. A volumetrically subordinate more hydrous, amphibole-dominated fractionation sequence is also present and comprises amphibole (±phlogopite) clinopyroxenites, gabbros, and diorites. We present 168 whole-rock analyses for the biotite- and amphibole-dominated series. First, we constrain the liquid line of descent (LLD) of a primitive, alkaline arc melt characterized by biotite as the dominant hydrous phase through a fractionation model that incorporates the stepwise subtraction of cumulates of a fixed composition. The modeled LLD reproduces the geochemical trends observed in the “liquid-like” intrusives of the biotite series (quartz–monzonites and felsic dikes) and follows the water-undersaturated albite–orthoclase cotectic (at 0.2–0.5 GPa). Second, as distinct biotite- and amphibole-dominated fractionation series are observed, we investigate the controls on high-temperature biotite versus amphibole crystallization from hydrous arc melts. Analysis of a compilation of hydrous experimental starting materials and high-Mg basalts saturated in biotite and/or amphibole suggests that the degree of K enrichment controls whether biotite will crystallize as an early high-T phase, whereas the degree of water saturation is the dominant control of amphibole crystallization. Therefore, if a melt has the appropriate major-element composition for early biotite and amphibole crystallization, as is true of the high-Mg basalts from the Dariv Igneous Complex, the relative proximity of these two phases to the liquidus depends on the H_2O concentration in the melt. Third, we compare the modeled high-K LLD and whole-rock geochemistry of the Dariv Igneous Complex to the more common calc-alkaline trend. Biotite and K-feldspar fractionation in the alkaline arc series results in the moderation of K_2O/Na_2O values and LILE concentrations with increasing SiO_2 as compared to the more common calc-alkaline series characterized by amphibole and plagioclase crystallization and strong increases in K_2O/Na_2O values. Lastly, we suggest that common calc-alkaline parental melts involve addition of a moderate pressure, sodic, fluid-dominated slab component while more alkaline primitive melts characterized by early biotite saturation involve the addition of a high-pressure potassic sediment melt. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Description: We present the geochemistry and intrusion pressures of granitoids from the Kohistan batholith, which represents, together with the intruded volcanic and sedimentary units, the middle and upper arc crust of the Kohistan paleo-island arc. Based on Al-in-hornblende barometry, the batholith records intrusion pressures from ~0.2 GPa in the north (where the volcano-sedimentary cover is intruded) to max. ~0.9 GPa in the southeast. The Al-in-hornblende barometry demonstrates that the Kohistan batholith represents a complete cross section across an arc batholith, reaching from the top at ~8–9 km depth (north) to its bottom at 25–35 km (south-central to southeast). Despite the complete outcropping and accessibility of the entire batholith, there is no observable compositional stratification across the batholith. The geochemical characteristics of the granitoids define three groups. Group 1 is characterized by strongly enriched incompatible elements and unfractionated middle rare earth elements (MREE)/heavy rare earth element patterns (HREE); Group 2 has enriched incompatible element concentrations similar to Group 1 but strongly fractionated MREE/HREE. Group 3 is characterized by only a limited incompatible element enrichment and unfractionated MREE/HREE. The origin of the different groups can be modeled through a relatively hydrous (Group 1 and 2) and of a less hydrous (Group 3) fractional crystallization line from a primitive basaltic parent at different pressures. Appropriate mafic/ultramafic cumulates that explain the chemical characteristics of each group are preserved at the base of the arc. The Kohistan batholith strengthens the conclusion that hydrous fractionation is the most important mechanism to form volumetrically significant amounts of granitoids in arcs. The Kohistan Group 2 granitoids have essentially identical trace element characteristics as Archean tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) suites. Based on these observations, it is most likely that similar to the Group 2 rocks in the Kohistan arc, TTG gneisses were to a large part formed by hydrous high-pressure differentiation of primitive arc magmas in subduction zones. ©2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-12-01
    Description: A series of centrifuge-assisted settling experiments of 30 vol % olivine in 70 vol % basaltic melt was conducted to elucidate the formation mechanisms and time scales of gravitational cumulates. The settling experiments were performed in a centrifuging piston cylinder at 200–1,500 g , 1,270–1,280 °C, and 0.8–1.1 GPa on previously annealed and texturally equilibrated samples. The mechanical settling of the dense olivine suspension occurs at about 1/6 the speed of simple Stokes settling, resulting in a sedimentation exponent n  = 4.1(6) in agreement with predictions from analogue systems. The porosity (φ_ m ) of the orthocumulate resulting from gravitational settling of crystals is about 54 % and formation times of olivine orthocumulates result to 0.1–10 m day−1 (for an initial crystal content of the melt of 1–5 % and grain sizes of 2–10 mm). After mechanical settling, olivine grains rest on each other, and further compaction occurs through pressure dissolution at grain contacts, olivine reprecipitation where olivine is in contact with melt, and concomitant expulsion of excess liquid from the cumulate layer. With centrifugation at 400 g for 50 h, porosities as low as 30.3 vol % were achieved. The olivine content at the bottom of the gravitational cumulate is 1 − φ_m ~ log(Δρ ·  h  ·  a  ·  t ), where Δρ is the density difference between crystals and melt, h the crystal layer thickness, a the acceleration, and t the time of centrifuging. Compaction is hence proportional to effective stress integrated over time indicating that pressure dissolution is the dominant mechanism for chemical compaction. The compaction limit, that is the lowermost porosity to be reached by this mechanism, is calculated by equating the lithostatic and hydraulic pressure gradients in the cumulate and results to 3–5 % porosity for the experiments. Crystal size distribution curves and a growth exponent n of 3.1(3) indicate that diffusion-controlled Ostwald ripening is the dominant crystal growth mechanism. The above relationship, combined with a linear scaling for grain size as appropriate for reaction-controlled pressure solution creep, allows calculation of formation times of adcumulates. If chemical compaction is dissolution–reprecipitation limited, then single layers of natural olivine adcumulates of ½ m thickness with 70–75 vol % olivine at the base (as observed in the Rhum layered intrusion) would have typical formation times of 0.4–3 years for grain sizes of 2–10 mm. This time scale compares favourably with characteristic cooling times of sills. If a greater than 20-m-thick series of cumulate layers pressurizes a base layer with the porosity still filled by a melt, then compaction proceeds to the compaction limit within a few years. It can thus be expected that in layered mafic intrusions where cumulates are continuously deposited from a large magma chamber and which characteristic cooling times of more than decades, a compaction zone of several tens of metres forms with adcumulates only maintaining porosities in the order of 5 %. In conclusion, gravitational settling and gravitation-driven chemical compaction are feasible cumulate-forming processes for dense mafic minerals in basaltic magmas and in particular in large layered intrusions. ©2012 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...