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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Nature Publishing Group, 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Publishing Group for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Geoscience 1 (2008): 620-624, doi:10.1038/ngeo285.
    Description: The early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) is the most recent and best constrained disappearance of a large Northern Hemisphere ice sheet. Its demise is a natural experiment for assessing rates of ice sheet decay and attendant contributions to sea level rise. Here we demonstrate with terrestrial and marine records that the final LIS demise occurred in two stages of rapid melting from ~9.0- 8.5 and 7.6-6.8 kyr BP with the LIS contributing ~1.3 and 0.7 cm yr-1 to sea level rise, respectively. Simulations using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model suggest that increased ablation from enhanced early Holocene boreal summer insolation may have been the predominant cause of the LIS contributions to sea level rise. Although the boreal summer surface radiative forcing of early Holocene LIS retreat is twice that of projections for 2100 C.E. greenhouse gas radiative forcing, the associated summer surface air temperature increase is the same. The geologic evidence for rapid LIS retreat under a comparable forcing provides a prehistoric precedent for a possible large negative mass balance response of the Greenland Ice Sheet by the end of the coming century.
    Description: This research was funded by National Science Foundation grants ATM-05-01351 & ATM-05-01241 to D.W.O. & G.A.S., start-up funds from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Postdoctoral Scholarship to A.E.C., and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Ocean and Climate Change Institute (D.W.O. & R.E.C.).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2007): L13701, doi:10.1029/2007GL030017.
    Description: Paleoceanographic data from the low latitude Pacific Ocean provides evidence of changes in the freshwater budget and redistribution of freshwater within the basin during the Holocene. Reconstructed Holocene seawater δ 18O changes compare favorably to differences predicted between climate simulations for the middle Holocene (MH) and for the pre-Industrial late Holocene (LH). The model simulations demonstrate that changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle affect the relationship between δ 18Osw and surface salinity, and allow, for the first time, quantitative estimates of western Pacific salinity change during the Holocene. The simulations suggest that during the MH, the mean salinity of the Pacific was higher because less water vapor was transported from the Atlantic Ocean and more was transported to the Indian Ocean. The salinity of the western Pacific was enhanced further due both to the greater advection of salt to the region by ocean currents and to an increase in continental precipitation at the expense of maritime precipitation, the latter a consequence of the stronger Asian summer monsoon.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF grants ATM-0501241, ATM-0501351, and WHOI’s Ocean and Climate Change Institute.
    Keywords: Holocene ; Tropical Pacific ; Hydrology ; Paleoceanography ; Geochemical tracers ; Insolation forcing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 399 (1999), S. 452-455 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The temperature of air at the Earth's surface has risen during the past century, but the fraction of the warming that can be attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases remains controversial. The strongest warming trends have been over Northern Hemisphere land masses during winter, and are ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈div data-abstract-type="normal"〉〈p〉If an industrial civilization had existed on Earth many millions of years prior to our own era, what traces would it have left and would they be detectable today? We summarize the likely geological fingerprint of the Anthropocene, and demonstrate that while clear, it will not differ greatly in many respects from other known events in the geological record. We then propose tests that could plausibly distinguish an industrial cause from an otherwise naturally occurring climate event.〈/p〉〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 1473-5504
    Electronic ISSN: 1574-3006
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: Results are presented for six simulations of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global atmosphere-ocean model for the years 1950 to 2099. There are two control simulations with constant 1950 atmospheric composition from different initial states, two GHG experiments with observed greenhouse gases up to 1990 and compounded .5% CO2 annual increases thereafter, and two GHG+SO4 experiments with the same varying greenhouse gases plus varying tropospheric sulfate aerosols. Surface air temperature trends in the two GHG experiments are compared between themselves and with the observed temperature record from 1960 and 1998. All comparisons show high positive spatial correlation in the northern hemisphere except in summer when the greenhouse signal is weakest. The GHG+SO4 experiments show weaker correlations. In the southern hemisphere, correlations are either weak or negative which in part are due to the model's unrealistic interannual variability of southern sea ice cover. The model results imply that temperature changes due to forcing by increased greenhouse gases have risen above the level of regional interannual temperature variability in the northern hemisphere over the past 40 years. This period is thus an important test of reliability of coupled climate models.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: The distribution and variation of oxygen isotopes in seawater are calculated using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies global ocean model. Simple ecological models are used to estimate the planktonic foraminiferal abundance as a function of depth, column temperature, season, light intensity, and density stratification. These models are combined to forward model isotopic signals recorded in calcareous ocean sediment. The sensitivity of the results to the changes in foraminiferal ecology, secondary calcification, and dissolution are also examined. Simulated present-day isotopic values for ecology relevant for multiple species compare well with core-top data. Hindcasts of sea surface temperature and salinity are made from time series of the modeled carbonate isotope values as the model climate changes. Paleoclimatic inferences from these carbonate isotope records are strongly affected by erroneous assumptions concerning the covariations of temperature, salinity, and delta (sup 18)O(sub w). Habitat-imposed biases are less important, although errors due to temperature-dependent abundances can be significant.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Paleoceanography; 1-14
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Over the past 30 years climate models have evolved from relatively simple representations of a few atmospheric processes to complex multi-disciplinary system models which incorporate physics from bottom of the ocean to the mesopause and are used for seasonal to multi-million year timescales. Computer infrastructure over that period has gone from punchcard mainframes to modern parallel clusters. Constraints of working within an ever evolving research code mean that most software changes must be incremental so as not to disrupt scientific throughput. Unfortunately, programming methodologies have generally not kept pace with these challenges, and existing implementations now present a heavy and growing burden on further model development as well as limiting flexibility and reliability. Opportunely, advances in software engineering from other disciplines (e.g. the commercial software industry) as well as new generations of powerful development tools can be incorporated by the model developers to incrementally and systematically improve underlying implementations and reverse the long term trend of increasing development overhead. However, these methodologies cannot be applied blindly, but rather must be carefully tailored to the unique characteristics of scientific software development. We will discuss the need for close integration of software engineers and climate scientists to find the optimal processes for climate modeling.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: American Geophysical Union meeting; Dec 13, 2010 - Dec 17, 2010; an Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The goal of climate informatics, an emerging discipline, is to inspire collaboration between climate scientists and data scientists, in order to develop tools to analyze complex and ever-growing amounts of observed and simulated climate data, and thereby bridge the gap between data and understanding. Here, recent climate informatics work is presented, along with details of some of the field's remaining challenges. Given the impact of climate change, understanding the climate system is an international priority. The goal of climate informatics is to inspire collaboration between climate scientists and data scientists, in order to develop tools to analyze complex and ever-growing amounts of observed and simulated climate data, and thereby bridge the gap between data and understanding. Here, recent climate informatics work is presented, along with details of some of the remaining challenges.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN15434
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Climate models projected stronger warming over the past 15 years than has been seen in observations. Conspiring factors of errors in volcanic and solar inputs, representations of aerosols, and El NiNo evolution, may explain most of the discrepancy.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN19112 , Nature Geoscience; 7; 3; 158-160
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