Description / Table of Contents:
Contents: Council Staff . - Acknowledgments. - Boxes. - Tables. - Figures. - Acronyms and Abbreviations. - Summary. - Introduction. - 1 The Oceans in the Anthropocene. - 1.1 Use of the oceans. - 1.1.1 The legendary sea and its cultural meanings. - 1.1.2 Food from the sea. - 1.1.3 Ocean shipping and maritime trade. - 1.1.4 The sea as a dump for waste and waste water. - 1.1.5 Energy from the sea. - 1.1.6 Marine mining and resource extraction. - 1.1.7 The economic value of marine ecosystems. - 1.2 Threats to the oceans. - 1.2.1 Physical destruction of ecosystems. - 1.2.2 Overfishing. - 1.2.3 Impacts of marine pollution. - 220.127.116.11 Results of chemical pollution. - 18.104.22.168 Results of plastic pollution. - 22.214.171.124 Radioactive contamination. - 1.2.4 Warming. - 1.2.5 CO2 input and acidification. - 1.2.6 Low-oxygen zones. - 1.2.7 Sea-level rise. - 1.2.8 Aggregated effects. - 1.3 Possible new uses. - 1.3.1 Renewable energy. - 1.3.2 Raw materials. - 1.3.3 Marine genetic resources. - 1.3.4 New developments in marine aquaculture. - 1.4 Shaping the future of the marine ecosystem. - 1.4.1 Primary principles and values. - 1.4.2 Guiding principle for human interaction with the oceans. - 126.96.36.199 Think systemically: Regard and maintain the sea as an ecosystem and aspart of the Earth system. - 188.8.131.52 Act in a precautionary way: Take uncertainty and ignorance into account. - 184.108.40.206 Cooperate: overcoming the tragedy of the commons. - 1.4.3 Exemplary specification of the guiding principle for the sustainable stewardship of the marine ecosystem. - 2 Global Society and Social Contract. - 2.1 Global society and world's oceans. - 2.1.1 The global society in the Anthropocene. - 2.1.2 The emerging global society and global society theory. - 2.1.3 The cosmopolitan challenge. - 2.1.4 Global appreciation of the oceans. - 2.2 A social contract for the seas. - 2.2.1 A social contract as a basis for the Great Transformation. - 2.2.2 Reform of ocean governance. - 3 Governance of Human Ocean Use. - 3.1 Specifics of the seas. - 3.1.1 Oceans as part of the Earth system. - 3.1.2 Demands on marine policy caused by knowledge gaps. - 3.1.3 Oceans as a global public and common good. - 3.1.4 Touchstones for assessing the existing governanceof the oceans. - 3.1.5 Common heritage of mankind. - 3.2 Ocean governance in international law: UNCLOS. - 3.2.1 Zoning of the oceans by UNCLOS. - 220.127.116.11 Territorial sea. - 18.104.22.168 Contiguous zone. - 22.214.171.124 Exclusive economic zone. - 126.96.36.199 Continental shelf. - 188.8.131.52 High seas. - 184.108.40.206 The Area. - 3.2.2 Regulations of UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans. - 3.2.3 Institutions of UNCLOS. - 220.127.116.11 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. - 18.104.22.168 International Seabed Authority and the seabed regime. - 3.2.4 Assessment of UNCLOS. - 22.214.171.124 Systemic perspective. - 126.96.36.199 Precautionary principle. - 188.8.131.52 Adaptive management. - 184.108.40.206 Incentives for innovation. - 220.127.116.11 Assignment of rights of use. - 18.104.22.168 Cooperation. - 22.214.171.124 Subsidiary decision-making structures. - 126.96.36.199 Transparent information. - 188.8.131.52 Participative decision-making structures. - 184.108.40.206 Fair distribution mechanisms. - 220.127.116.11 Conflict-resolution mechanisms. - 18.104.22.168 Enforcement mechanisms. - 3.2.5 Core problems and challenges of future ocean governance. - 3.3 Global ocean governance: UN institutions and activities. - 3.3.1 Actors: UN bodies and specialized organizations. - 22.214.171.124 UN General Assembly and UNSecretary-General. - 126.96.36.199 Rio Process. - 188.8.131.52 International Maritime Organization. - 184.108.40.206 UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission. - 220.127.116.11 UN Environmental Programme (UNEP). - 18.104.22.168 UN-Oceans. - 22.214.171.124 Global Environment Facility (GEF). - 126.96.36.199 World Bank Group. - 3.3.2 UN conventions relating to the oceans. - 188.8.131.52 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). - 184.108.40.206 Negotiations on a new implementing agreement on marine biodiversityon the high seas. - 220.127.116.11 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - 18.104.22.168 UNESCO World Heritage Convention and World Heritage Marine Programme. - 22.214.171.124 MARPOL and SOLAS. - 126.96.36.199 London Convention and London Protocol. - 3.4 Regional ocean governance. - 3.4.1 UNEP Regional Seas Programme. - 3.4.2 Regional seas agreements. - 188.8.131.52 Task areas. - 184.108.40.206 Institutionalization: governance mechanisms and capacity. - 220.127.116.11 Cooperation, coordination, coherence and complementarity. - 3.4.3 EU marine policy. - 3.5 Private ocean governance. - 3.5.1 Options and limitations. - 3.5.2 Example: eco-labels and sustainability labels. - 3.6 Selected instruments. - 3.6.1 Environmental monitoring. - 3.6.2 Marine protected areas and marine spatial planning. - 18.104.22.168 Marine protected areas. - 22.214.171.124 Marine spatial planning. - 3.6.3 Integrated coastal-zone management.. - 3.6.4 Environmental standards. - 3.6.5 Environmental liability. - 3.6.6 Sanctions. - 3.6.7 Class actions. - 3.6.8 International financial transfers. - 3.7 Conclusions. - 4 Food from the Sea. - 4.1 Marine fishery. - 4.1.1 Status and trends of fisheries. - 4.1.2 Importance and effects of fisheries. - 126.96.36.199 Food and food security. - 188.8.131.52 Socioeconomic significance and effects. - 184.108.40.206 Ecological significance and effects. - 220.127.116.11 Small-scale marine fisheries in the global context. - 4.1.3 Sustainable fisheries management: methods and instruments. - 18.104.22.168 Ecosystem approach and precautionary principle as the basis for sustainable fishing. - 22.214.171.124 Knowledge-based fisheries management. - 126.96.36.199 Instruments for the sustainable management of fish-stocks. - 188.8.131.52 Minimizing the ecological risks and side effects of fisheries. - 184.108.40.206 Monitoring and enforcement. - 220.127.116.11 Costs and financing the transition towards sustainable fisheries. - 4.1.4 International fisheries governance: institutions and focal points. - 18.104.22.168 Political objectives. - 22.214.171.124 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. - 126.96.36.199 The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. - 188.8.131.52 Fisheries governance on the high seas: the UN Fish Stocks Agreement and regional fisheries management organizations. - 184.108.40.206 Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. - 220.127.116.11 The external dimension of the EU Common Fisheries Policy. - 18.104.22.168 Subsidies in the fishing industry. - 22.214.171.124 International trade and trade policy. - 4.2 Aquaculture. - 4.2.1 Definitions and principles. - 4.2.2 State of aquaculture and trends. - 126.96.36.199 Growth and regional overview. - 188.8.131.52 Contribution to food security and poverty reduction. - 184.108.40.206 Environmental risks from aquaculture and conflicts over use at the coasts. - 220.127.116.11 Promoting ecologically sustainable aquaculture. - 4.2.3 Governance of aquaculture. - 18.104.22.168 Fundamental prerequisites for a sustainable form of aquaculture. - 22.214.171.124 Selected instruments for promoting sustainable aquaculture. - 126.96.36.199 Research and development for sustainable aquaculture. - 4.2.4 International and regional governance in aquaculture. - 188.8.131.52 International level. - 184.108.40.206 European Union. - 220.127.116.11 Regional seas agreements. - 4.3 Interactions between fisheries and aquaculture. - 4.3.1 Forage fisheries and breeding from wild-caught fish. - 4.3.2 Competition between uses. - 4.3.3 Reducing the proportion of fishmeal and fish oil used in aquaculture feeds. - 4.4 Systemic effects: land/sea interactions and feedbackloops with the Earth system. - 4.4.1 Climate change. - 4.4.2 Acidification. - 4.4.3 Low-oxygen zones and eutrophication. - 4.4.4 Anthropogenic pollution. - 4.4.5 Synergistic effects. - 4.5 Conclusions. - 5 Energy from the sea. - 5.1 Fossil energy carriers from the sea. - 5.1.1 Resource availability of fossil energy carriers. - 5.1.2 Technologies of offshore extraction. - 5.1.3 Environmental impact of fossil energy use. - 5.1.4 Infrastructure. - 18.104.22.168 Mineral oil. - 22.214.171.124 Natural gas. - 126.96.36.199 Carbon dioxide. - 5.1.5 Costs. - 5.1.6 Prospects of fossil-fuel extraction in the oceans. - 5.1.7 Conclusions. - 5.2 Renewable energy. - 5.2.1 Technological possibilities of offshore wind energy and marine energies. - 188.8.131.52 Development status of offshore wind energy. - 184.108.40.206 Development status of marine-energy technologies. - 5.2.2 Global potential of sea-based renewable power generation. - 220.127.116.11 Offshore wind energy. - 18.104.22.168 Marine energies. - 5.2.3 Environmental impact of marine renewable-energy generation. - 5.2.4 Infrastructure. - 22.214.171.124 Offshore logistics for renewable energy. - 126.96.36.199 Offshore storage technologies. - 5.2.5 Costs. - 188.8.131.52 Offshore wind energy. - 184.108.40.206 Marine energies. - 5.3 Vision of a future marine energy system. - 5.3.1 The status quo of marine energy generation. - 5.3.2 A future renewable marine energy system. - 5.3.3 Transformation of the marine energy system - from the status quo to the futureenergy system. - 5.4 Governance. - 5.4.1 Energy policy. - 5.4.2 Marine policy. - 220.127.116.11 Marine spatial planning. - 18.104.22.168 Construction of installations in the sea. - 22.214.171.124 Regulation of oil and gas production. - 126.96.36.199 Regulations on the storage of CO2 in the sea or the seabed. - 5.4.3 Promotion of innovation. - 188.8.131.52 Promotion of systemic innovation. - 184.108.40.206 Technology development. - 220.127.116.11 Innovation potential. - 18.104.22.168 Measures. - 5.5 Conclusions. - 6 Synthesis: The Blue Revolution. - 6.1 The oceans as the common heritage of mankind. - 6.2 Expansion into the oceans. - 6.3 A new initiative for the conservation and sustainable use of the seas. - 6.4 Elements of a new marine policy. - 7 Recommendations for Action. - 7.1 Guiding principles for future ocean governance. - 7.1.1 The oceans as the 'common heritage of mankind'. - 7.1.2 The systemic approach. - 7.1.3 The precautionary principle. - 7.1.4 Ten criteria for a future system of ocean governance. - 7.1.5 Implementation and enforcement. - 7.1.6 A social contract for the seas. - 7.2 The WBGU's vision of a comprehensive reform of the international law of the sea. - 7.2.1 The common heritage of mankind, the systemic approach and the precautionaryprinciple: three guiding principles for ocean management. - 7.2.2 Institutional changes. - 22.214.171.124 A global steward of the seas: the World Oceans Organization. - 126.96.36.199 Regional stewards of the seas: Regional Marine Management Organizations. - 188.8.131.52 Extend the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. - 7.2.3 Rights and duties of states parties on the high seas and in EEZs. - 184.108.40.206 Conservation and sustainable use of the high seas. - 220.127.116.11 Conservation and sustainable use of the Exclusive Economic Zones. - 7.2.4 Instruments. - 7.3 Recommendations for action: the road to a comprehensivereform of the law of the sea. - 7.3.1 Strengthen the knowledge and action base of ocean governance. - 18.104.22.168 Improve marine environmental monitoring. - 22.214.171.124 Process scientific knowledge for policy-makers and support the Regular Process. - 126.96.36.199 Set up a multi-stakeholder forum. - 7.3.2 Create the necessary conditions for sustainable management. - 7.3.3 Develop strategies for future ocean governance. - 188.8.131.52 Develop the Oceans Compact into an Integrated World Oceans Strategy. - 184.108.40.206 Ratify regional, national and local marine strategies. - 220.127.116.11 Take on a pioneering role - forge subglobal alliances. - 7.3.4 Support and flesh out the international law of the sea. - 18.104.22.168 Promote the signing, ratification and implementation of UNCLOS. - 22.214.171.124 Reach a new implementing agreement on biological diversity on the high seas. - 126.96.36.199 Advance the UN Fish Stocks Agreement and Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs). - 7.3.5 Strengthen regional ocean governance. - 188.8.131.52 Strengthen and expand the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. - 184.108.40.206 Strengthen regional seas agreements. - 220.127.116.11 Improve dovetailing in regional ocean governance. - 7.3.6 Develop concepts for the joint funding of ocean governance. - 18.104.22.168 Strengthen international financing mechanisms. - 22.214.171.124 Use the mechanisms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change for funding. - 126.96.36.199 Utilize user charges as a source of funding. - 7.3.7 Employ incentive instruments and funding structures. - 188.8.131.52 Create economic incentives for sustainable uses. - 184.108.40.206 Develop funding structures for long-term-oriented investments. - 7.3.8 Strengthen and expand private governance. - 220.127.116.11 Introduce a standardized Europe-wide system of certification for wild-caught fish and seafood. - 18.104.22.168 Improve legal certainty on the WTO-conformity of sustainability standards. - 7.3.9 Considerably expand marine protected areas and spatial planning. - 22.214.171.124 Expand marine protected areas. - 126.96.36.199 Expand cross-border marine spatial planning. - 7.3.10 Promote the harmonization of existing liability regimes. - 7.4 Food from the sea. - 7.4.1 Recommendations for action on marine fisheries. - 188.8.131.52 Overall recommendations for a change of course in fisheries. - 184.108.40.206 Improve the preconditions for knowledge-based fishery. - 220.127.116.11 Reduce subsidies. - 18.104.22.168 Stop wastefulness. - 22.214.171.124 Combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. - 126.96.36.199 Take into account climate change, ocean acidification and other systemic effects. - 188.8.131.52 Reform the European Union's Common Fisheries Policy. - 184.108.40.206 Marine small-scale fisheries in the global context. - 7.4.2 Recommendations for action on aquaculture. - 220.127.116.11 Improve knowledge and data resources. - 18.104.22.168 Promote the development of sustainable aquaculture systems. - 22.214.171.124 Implement international and EU-wide recommendations. - 126.96.36.199 Strengthen economic policy supporting sustainable aquaculture. - 188.8.131.52 Promote cooperation, prevent conflicts. - 7.4.3 Fishing and aquaculture as elements of integrated strategies for food security. - 7.5 Use of energy from the sea for the energy-system transformation. - 7.5.1 Integrated energy, marine and innovation policiesfor the energy-system transformation. - 184.108.40.206 Energy policy. - 220.127.116.11 Marine policy. - 18.104.22.168 Innovation policy. - 7.5.2 Build an offshore supergrid. - 7.5.3 Refrain from marine methane hydrate mining. - 7.5.4 Develop regulations for sub-seabed CCS. - 8 Recommendations for Research and Education. - 8.1 Research in the context of the transformation towards sustainability. - 8.1.1 Key types of research. - 8.1.2 Innovative approaches in German marine research. - 8.2 Transformation research for the oceans. - 8.2.1 Conceptual background. - 8.2.2 Research recommendations. - 8.3 Transformative research for the seas. - 8.3.1 Research on global change. - 8.3.2 Ocean governance. - 22.214.171.124 Ocean governance for the transformation towards sustainability. - 126.96.36.199 Policy instruments for new challenges. - 8.3.3 Food from the sea. - 188.8.131.52 Fisheries. - 184.108.40.206 Aquaculture. - 220.127.116.11 Overarching issues. - 8.3.4 Energy from the sea. - 18.104.22.168 Technology research. - 22.214.171.124 Research on environmental hazards and risks. - 8.4 Recommendations on research policy. - 8.4.1 Stronger integration of interdisciplinary marine research into research programmes. - 8.4.2 Stronger institutionalization of interdisciplinary marine research. - 8.4.3 Strengthening of the interface between science and society in marine research. - 9 References. - 10 Glossary.
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1. Aufl., Red.-Schluss: 28.02.2013