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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A formalism is presented for determining the wavenumber-frequency transfer function associated with an irregularly sampled multidimensional dataset. This transfer function reveals the filtering characteristics and aliasing patterns inherent in the sample design. In combination with information about the spectral characteristics of the signal, the transfer function can be used to quantify the spatial and temporal resolution capability of the dataset. Application of the method to idealized Geosat altimeter data (i.e., neglecting measurement errors and data dropouts) concludes that the Geosat orbit configuration is capable of resolving scales of about 3 deg in latitude and longitude by about 30 days.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (ISSN 0739-0572); 11; 2, pt; p. 534-550
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 45 (2015): 104–132, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0032.1.
    Description: Three mechanisms for self-induced Ekman pumping in the interiors of mesoscale ocean eddies are investigated. The first arises from the surface stress that occurs because of differences between surface wind and ocean velocities, resulting in Ekman upwelling and downwelling in the cores of anticyclones and cyclones, respectively. The second mechanism arises from the interaction of the surface stress with the surface current vorticity gradient, resulting in dipoles of Ekman upwelling and downwelling. The third mechanism arises from eddy-induced spatial variability of sea surface temperature (SST), which generates a curl of the stress and therefore Ekman pumping in regions of crosswind SST gradients. The spatial structures and relative magnitudes of the three contributions to eddy-induced Ekman pumping are investigated by collocating satellite-based measurements of SST, geostrophic velocity, and surface winds to the interiors of eddies identified from their sea surface height signatures. On average, eddy-induced Ekman pumping velocities approach O(10) cm day−1. SST-induced Ekman pumping is usually secondary to the two current-induced mechanisms for Ekman pumping. Notable exceptions are the midlatitude extensions of western boundary currents and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, where SST gradients are strong and all three mechanisms for eddy-induced Ekman pumping are comparable in magnitude. Because the polarity of current-induced curl of the surface stress opposes that of the eddy, the associated Ekman pumping attenuates the eddies. The decay time scale of this attenuation is proportional to the vertical scale of the eddy and inversely proportional to the wind speed. For typical values of these parameters, the decay time scale is about 1.3 yr.
    Description: This work was funded by NASA Grants NNX08AI80G, NNX08AR37G, NNX13AD78G, NNX10AE91G, NNX13AE47G, and NNX10AO98G.
    Description: 2015-07-01
    Keywords: Circulation/ Dynamics ; Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Eddies ; Ekman pumping/transport ; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Eddies ; Ekman pumping ; Observational techniques and algorithms ; Satellite observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed located is quantified through a formalism. The method is applied to satellite observations of chlorophyll from the coastal zone color scanner. The two specific linear estimates under consideration are the composite average formed from the simple average of all observations within the averaging period and the optimal estimate formed by minimizing the mean squared error of the temporal average based on all the observations in the time series. The resulting suboptimal estimates are shown to be more accurate than composite averages. Suboptimal estimates are also found to be nearly as accurate as optimal estimates using the correct signal and measurement error variances and correlation functions for realistic ranges of these parameters, which makes it a viable practical alternative to the composite average method generally employed at present.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 14
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Using Geosat altimeter data for 26 months from November 1986 to December 1988 and a newly developed technique for the analysis of height data, the variability of the sea level and the surface geostrophic currents in the Southern Ocean is investigated. The processed Geosat data are used to examine the relationship between the mesoscale variability and the values of mean circulation, determined from historical hydrographic data. It is shown that the geographical patterns of both the mean flow and the mesoscale variability are correlated. An efficient objective-analysis algorithm for generating smoothed fields from observations randomly distributed in time and two space dimensions is developed and applied to 26 months of Geosat data. The smoothed fields are then used to investigate the large-scale low-frequency variability of the sea level and the surface geostrophic velocity in the Southern Ocean, in order to identify the mode of the observed variations.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 17877-17
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A mean reference surface and time-dependent orbit errors are estimated simultaneously for each exact-repeat ground track from the first two years of Geosat sea level estimates based on the Goddard Earth model (GEM)-T2 orbits. Motivated by orbit theory and empirical analysis of Geosat data, the time-dependent orbit errors are modeled as 1 cycle per revolution (cpr) sinusoids with slowly varying amplitude and phase. The method recovers the known 'bow tie effect' introduced by the existence of force model errors within the precision orbit determination (POD) procedure used to generate the GEM-T2 orbits. The bow tie pattern of 1-cpr orbit errors is characterized by small amplitudes near the middle and larger amplitudes (up to 160 cm in the 2 yr of data considered here) near the ends of each 5- to 6-day orbit arc over which the POD force model is integrated. A detailed examination of these bow tie patterns reveals the existence of daily modulations of the amplitudes of the 1-cpr sinusoid orbit errors with typical and maximum peak-to-peak ranges of about 14 cm and 30 cm, respectively. The method also identifies a daily variation in the mean orbit error with typical and maximum peak-to-peak ranges of about 6 and 30 cm, respectively, that is unrelated to the predominant 1-cpr orbit error. Application of the simultaneous solution method to the much less accurate Geosat height estimates based on the Naval Astronautics Group orbits concludes that the accuracy of POD is not important for collinear altimetric studies of time-dependent mesoscale variability (wavelengths shorter than 1000 km), as long as the time-dependent orbit errors are dominated by 1-cpr variability and a long-arc (several orbital periods) orbit error estimation scheme such as that presented here is used.
    Keywords: ASTRODYNAMICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; C7; p. 12,579-12,600.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Alias periods and wavelengths for the M(sub 2, S(sub 2), N(sub 2), K(sub 1), O(sub 1), and P(sub 1) tidal constituents are calculated for TOPEX/POSEIDON. Alias wavelenghts calculated in previous studies are shown to be in error, and a correct method is presented. With the exception of the K(sub 1) constituent, all of these tidal aliases for TOPEX/POSEIDON have periods shorter than 90 days and are likely to be confounded with long-period sea surface height signals associated with real ocean processes. In particular, the correspondence between the periods and wavelengths of the M(sub 2) alias and annual baroclinic Rossby waves that plagued Geosat sea surface height data is avoided. The potential for aliasing residual tidal errors in smoothed estimates of sea surface height is calculated for the six tidal constituents. The potential for aliasing the lunar tidal constituents M(sub 2), N(sub 2) and O(sub 1) fluctuates with latitude and is different for estimates made at the crossovers of ascending and descending ground tracks than for estimates at points midway between crossovers. The potential for aliasing the solar tidal constituents S(sub 2), K(sub 1) and P(sub 1) varies smoothly with latitude. S(sub 2) is strongly aliased for latitudes within 50 degress of the equator, while K(sub 1) and P(sub 1) are only weakly aliased in that range. A weighted least squares method for estimating and removing residual tidal errors from TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height data is presented. A clear understanding of the nature of aliased tidal error in TOPEX/POSEIDON data aids the unambiguous identification of real propagating sea surface height signals. Unequivocal evidence of annual period, westward propagating waves in the North Atlantic is presented.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; C12; p. 24,761-24,775
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2002-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0027-0644
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0493
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2007-03-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
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