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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 59 (1991), S. 1641-1643 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We demonstrate the replication of device patterns consisting of interdigital lines ∼50 nm wide on 100 nm pitch using 1.32 nm x rays at a mask-to-substrate gap of 2.72 μm. The exposure latitude exceeds the factor 2.3 at this gap. From the expression that relates gap, G, linewidth, W, and wavelength λ (i.e., G=αW2/λ), we obtain α=1.44, which is well beyond the predictions of previous theoretical analyses based on the Kirchhoff boundary conditions. We attribute this disparity to the fact that an x-ray absorber is a lossy dielectric, hundreds of wavelengths thick, and hence the Kirchhoff boundary conditions are not applicable.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The general design and performance characteristics of MIT's two dispersive spectrometers, the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) and the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG), now being developed for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), are described. Particular attention is given to the development of the critical technologies incorporated into these instruments, including BCS diffractors, imaging gas flow proportional counters, and grating elements for the HETG. The principal stages and the current status of the developments are reviewed.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-1469
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Attention is given to a high energy transmission grating spectrometer that operates over the range 0.4-8 keV, giving resolving powers of 100-1000 and effective areas of 10-200 sq cm. The instrument, which is part of the MIT high resolution X-ray spectroscopy investigation, consists of a single array of grating facets of two types: medium energy gratings of 0.6-micron period, 0.5-micron thick silver mounted behind the outer three AXAF mirrors, and high energy gratings of 0.2-micron period, 1.0-micron thick gold mounted behind the inner three mirrors. The gratings are oriented so as to correct for coma and so that the medium and high energy spectra form a shallow 'X' at the AXAF focal plane. Likely targets include normal stars, binary X-ray sources, active galactic nuclei and quasars. The HETGS can also be used to give moderate resolution spectra of slightly extended sources and monochromatic images of sources with strong lines, such as supernova remnants in nearby galaxies.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The state of current planar techniques in the fabrication of Fresnel zone plates and diffraction gratings is reviewed. Among the fabrication techniques described are multilayer resist techniques; scanning electron beam lithography; and holographic lithography. Consideration is also given to: X-ray lithography; ion beam lithography; and electroplating. SEM photographs of the undercut profiles obtained in a type AZ 135OB photoresistor by holographic lithography are provided.
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: X-ray emission lines from the Crab Nebula and the surrounding region have been searched with the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory. A 3 x 30 arcmin and a 6 arcmin diameter circular aperture were pointed at several positions centered on, and immediately to the north and south of, the nebula. Stringent upper limits are obtained for emission in lines of N-6 (0.43 keV), O-8 (0.65 keV), Fe-17 (0.83 keV), and others - most of which are prominent in the spectra of other supernova remnants and of the sun. The observed upper limits and standard models for the emission from a thermal plasma lead to upper limits on the quantity of hot plasma within or around the Crab. In particular, previously reported emission from a 7 arcmin diameter region surrounding the Crab is probably due to scattering of X-rays from the central source by interstellar dust in the line of sight and is certainly not due to emission from a thermal plasma.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 241
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: METALLIC MATERIALS
    Type: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B (ISSN 0734-211X); 3; 272-275
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An antireflection coating (ARC) for use with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resist for ArF excimer laser lithography (193 nm) was formulated. It consists of PMMA and a bis-azide, 4.4-prime-diazidodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) which crosslinks the film after deep UV (260 nm) irradiation and subsequent annealing. The reacted DDS then serves as the absorber for the 193 nm radiation and also prevents mixing of the ARC and PMMA during PMMA spin-coating and development. The effectiveness of the ARC was demonstrated by exposing, in PMMA, using achromatic holographic lithography, gratings of 100 nm period (about 50 nm linewidth) that are almost entirely free of an orthogonal standing wave.
    Keywords: OPTICS
    Type: Electrochemical Society, Journal (ISSN 0013-4651); 139; 616-619
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This paper describes the techniques used to fabricate deep-submicron-period transmission gratings for astrophysical and laboratory applications, with special attention given to the major steps involved in the transmission grating fabrication. These include the holographic lithography procedure used to pattern the master transmission grating, the fabrication of X-ray mask, the X-ray lithography step used to transfer the X-ray mask pattern into a substrate, and the electroplating of the substrate to form the final grating pattern. The various ways in which transmission gratings can be used in X-ray and VUV spectroscopy are discussed together with some examples of experiments reported in the literature.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Physica Scripta (ISSN 0031-8949); 41; 1 Ja
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The use of transmission gratings with grazing-incidence telescopes in celestial X-ray astrononmy is reviewed. The basic properties of transmission grating spectrometers and the use of 'phased' gratings to enhance the diffraction efficiency are outlined. The fabrication of the gratings is examined, giving special attention to the AXAF High Energy Transmission Grating. The performance of finite-period thick gratings is briefly discussed, and the performance of the transmission grating spectrometers planned for SPECTROSAT and AXAF are examined.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II; Aug. 15-17, 1988; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The performance of high spatial frequency 'phased' X-ray transmission gratings developed for the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics FAcility (AXAF) is examined. The gratings tested here nominally consist of 1-micron-thick gold lines of 0.2 micron period covering approximately 5 sq cm of a polyimide membrane. A table-top setup at MIT employs the gratings in reflection to diffract UV (325 nm) laser light. It is used to measure grating periods and indicates that period variations within and between gratings are a few parts in 10,000. Tests performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center 304 m X-ray Facility using 1.5 keV X-rays in transmission corroborate the UV measurements and demonstrate geometrically-limited resolving powers of E/Delta E about 750. Finally, X-ray transmission tests performed in the MIT 25 m X-ray facility provide measurements of period, line thickness, space-to-period ratio, tilt of grating lines, and efficiency.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy II; Aug. 15-17, 1988; San Diego, CA; United States
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