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  • 1
    Keywords: Environment ; Agriculture ; Ecosystems ; Sustainable development ; Sociology ; Human geography ; Sex (Psychology) ; Gender expression ; Gender identity ; Environment ; Sustainable Development ; Agriculture ; Gender Studies ; Ecosystems ; Human Geography
    Description / Table of Contents: PART I: Ester Boserup’s Intellectual Heritage --- 1. Ester Boserup: An Interdisciplinary Visionary Relevant for Sustainability --- 2. “Finding Out Is My Life”: Conversations with Ester Boserup in the 1990s --- 3. Boserup’s Theory on Technological Change as a Point of Departure for the Theory of Sociometabolic Regime Transition --- PART II Land Use, Technology and Agriculture --- 4. The Dwindling Role of Population Pressure in Land Use Change – a Case from the South West Pacific --- 5. Conceptual and Empirical Approaches to Mapping and Quantifying Land-Use Intensity --- 6. Malthusian Assumptions, Boserupian Response in Transition to Agriculture Models --- 7. Reconciling Boserup with Malthus: Agrarian Change and Soil Degradation in Olive Orchards in Spain (1750-2000) --- 8. Beyond Boserup: The Role of Working Time in Agricultural Development --- PART III: Population and Gender --- 9. Following Boserup’s Traces: From Invisibility to Informalisation of Women’s Economy to Engendering Development in Translocal Spaces --- 10. Daughters of the Hills: Gendered Agricultural Production, Modernisation, and Declining Child Sex Ratios in the Indian Central Himalayas --- 11. Revisiting Boserup’s Hypotheses in the Context of Africa --- 12. An Interpretation of Large-Scale Land Deals Using Boserup’s Theories of Agricultural Intensification, Gender and Rural Development --- 13. Labour Migration and Gendered Agricultural Asset Shifts in Southeastern Mexico: Two Stories of Farming Wives and Daughters --- 14. Working Time of Farm Women and Small-Scale Sustainable Farming in Austria --- 15. A Human Ecological Approach to Ester Boserup: Steps Towards Engendering Agriculture and Rural Development --- 16. Conclusions: Re-Evaluating Boserup in the Light of the Contributions to this Volume
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXV, 267 pages) , 44 illustrations, 22 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 9789401786782
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Keywords: Environment ; Agriculture ; Ecosystems ; Sustainable development ; Sociology ; Human geography ; Sex (Psychology) ; Gender expression ; Gender identity ; Environment ; Sustainable Development ; Agriculture ; Gender Studies ; Ecosystems ; Human Geography
    Description / Table of Contents: PART I: Ester Boserup’s Intellectual Heritage --- 1. Ester Boserup: An Interdisciplinary Visionary Relevant for Sustainability --- 2. “Finding Out Is My Life”: Conversations with Ester Boserup in the 1990s --- 3. Boserup’s Theory on Technological Change as a Point of Departure for the Theory of Sociometabolic Regime Transition --- PART II Land Use, Technology and Agriculture --- 4. The Dwindling Role of Population Pressure in Land Use Change – a Case from the South West Pacific --- 5. Conceptual and Empirical Approaches to Mapping and Quantifying Land-Use Intensity --- 6. Malthusian Assumptions, Boserupian Response in Transition to Agriculture Models --- 7. Reconciling Boserup with Malthus: Agrarian Change and Soil Degradation in Olive Orchards in Spain (1750-2000) --- 8. Beyond Boserup: The Role of Working Time in Agricultural Development --- PART III: Population and Gender --- 9. Following Boserup’s Traces: From Invisibility to Informalisation of Women’s Economy to Engendering Development in Translocal Spaces --- 10. Daughters of the Hills: Gendered Agricultural Production, Modernisation, and Declining Child Sex Ratios in the Indian Central Himalayas --- 11. Revisiting Boserup’s Hypotheses in the Context of Africa --- 12. An Interpretation of Large-Scale Land Deals Using Boserup’s Theories of Agricultural Intensification, Gender and Rural Development --- 13. Labour Migration and Gendered Agricultural Asset Shifts in Southeastern Mexico: Two Stories of Farming Wives and Daughters --- 14. Working Time of Farm Women and Small-Scale Sustainable Farming in Austria --- 15. A Human Ecological Approach to Ester Boserup: Steps Towards Engendering Agriculture and Rural Development --- 16. Conclusions: Re-Evaluating Boserup in the Light of the Contributions to this Volume
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXV, 267 pages) , 44 illustrations, 22 illustrations in color
    ISBN: 9789401786782
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Description: In environmental policymaking, the figurative cake that is wanted both to have and eat lies in achieving dematerialisation, i.e. reducing material resource use, and simultaneously pursuing a pathway lined with economic growth. Under such a scenario, we could have it all: increasing production and international convergence at the highest levels of consumption with a reduced impact on the environment in a lifestyle which could also be enjoyed by generations to come. In the following, we make a case for considering the evidence in contemplating the feasibility of such a utopia by taking social metabolism i.e. the material and energy input of society, into account.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ressourcennutzung ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Materialfluss ; EU-Umweltpolitik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In a recent study by Tsukimoto et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 2488-2493, 1990), CO2 inhalation appeared to reduce the size of the high ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) mode commonly observed in anesthetized mechanically air-ventilated dogs. In that study, large tidal volumes (VT) were used during CO2 inhalation to preserve normocapnia. To separate the influences of CO2 and high VT on the VA/Q distribution in the present study, we examined the effect of inspired CO2 on the high VA/Q mode using eight mechanically ventilated dogs (4 given CO2, 4 controls). The VA/Q distribution was measured first with normal VT and then with increased VT. In the CO2 group at high VT, data were collected before, during, and after CO2 inhalation. With normal VT, there was no difference in the size of the high VA/Q mode between groups [10.5 +/- 3.5% (SE) of ventilation in the CO2 group, 11.8 +/- 5.2% in the control group]. Unexpectedly, the size of the high VA/Q mode decreased similarly in both groups over time, independently of the inspired PCO2, at a rate similar to the fall in cardiac output over time. The reduction in the high VA/Q mode together with a simultaneous increase in alveolar dead space (estimated by the difference between inert gas dead space and Fowler dead space) suggests that poorly perfused high VA/Q areas became unperfused over time. A possible mechanism is that elevated alveolar pressure and decreased cardiac output eliminate blood flow from corner vessels in nondependent high VA/Q regions.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (ISSN 8750-7587); 72; 3; 1057-63
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality has been shown to increase with exercise. Potential mechanisms for this increase include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventilatory time constant inequality, reduced large airway gas mixing, and development of interstitial pulmonary edema. We hypothesized that persistence of VA/Q mismatch after ventilation and cardiac output subside during recovery would be consistent with edema; however, rapid resolution would suggest mechanisms related to changes in ventilation and blood flow per se. Thirteen healthy males performed near-maximal cycle ergometry at an inspiratory PO2 of 91 Torr (because hypoxia accentuates VA/Q mismatch on exercise). Cardiorespiratory variables and inert gas elimination patterns were measured at rest, during exercise, and between 2 and 30 min of recovery. Two profiles of VA/Q distribution behavior emerged during heavy exercise: in group 1 an increase in VA/Q mismatch (log SDQ of 0.35 +/- 0.02 at rest and 0.44 +/- 0.02 at exercise; P less than 0.05, n = 7) and in group 2 no change in VA/Q mismatch (n = 6). There were no differences in anthropometric data, work rate, O2 uptake, or ventilation during heavy exercise between groups. Group 1 demonstrated significantly greater VA/Q inequality, lower vital capacity, and higher forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity for the first 20 min during recovery than group 2. Cardiac index was higher in group 1 both during heavy exercise and 4 and 6 min postexercise. However, both ventilation and cardiac output returned toward baseline values more rapidly than did VA/Q relationships. Arterial pH was lower in group 1 during exercise and recovery. We conclude that greater VA/Q inequality in group 1 and its persistence during recovery are consistent with the hypothesis that edema occurs and contributes to the increase in VA/Q inequality during exercise. This is supported by observation of greater blood flows and acidosis and, presumably therefore, higher pulmonary vascular pressures in such subjects.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (ISSN 8750-7587); 72; 5; 1657-67
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: It is not known whether the asymptotic behavior of whole body O2 consumption (VO2) at maximal work rates (WR) is explained by similar behavior of VO2 in the exercising legs. To resolve this question, simultaneous measurements of body and leg VO2 were made at submaximal and maximal levels of effort breathing normoxic and hypoxic gases in seven trained male cyclists (maximal VO2, 64.7 +/- 2.7 ml O2.min-1.kg-1), each of whom demonstrated a reproducible VO2-WR asymptote during fatiguing incremental cycle ergometry. Left leg blood flow was measured by constant-infusion thermodilution, and total leg VO2 was calculated as the product of twice leg flow and radial arterial-femoral venous O2 concentration difference. The VO2-WR relationships determined at submaximal WR's were extrapolated to maximal WR as a basis for assessing the body and leg VO2 responses. The differences between measured and extrapolated maximal VO2 were 235 +/- 45 (body) and 203 +/- 70 (leg) ml O2/min (not significantly different). Plateauing of leg VO2 was associated with, and explained by, plateauing of both leg blood flow and O2 extraction and hence of leg VO2. We conclude that the asymptotic behavior of whole body VO2 at maximal WRs is a direct reflection of the VO2 profile at the exercising legs.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (ISSN 8750-7587); 73; 3; 1114-21
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: Mechanisms of altered pulmonary gas exchange during water immersion were studied in 12 normal males: 6 young (aged 20-29) and 6 older (aged 40-45). It is concluded that, in young subjects with closing volume (CV) less than expiratory reserve volume (ERV), gas exchange was enhanced during immersion, because normal ventilation-perfusion relations were preserved, and by mass balance, the ventilation/O2 uptake changes elevated arterial P(O2). In older males with CV greater than ERV and 52 percent of tidal volume below CV, immersion-induced airways closure during tidal breathing was associated with minimally increased shunt that did not significantly impair gas exchange. It is suggested that airways closure of this degree is of little importance to gas exchange.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: Journal of Applied Physiology (ISSN 0161-7567); 72; 64-72
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0016-7185
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-9398
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-07-07
    Description: During the second half of the 20th century, the crisis of societal relations to nature emerged as the subject of an international scientific, political, and popular debate. Anthropogenic climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource peaks, or local air and water pollution are symptoms of this crisis. Social ecology provides an inter- and transdisciplinary take on sustainability research and is well-equipped to respond to the research challenges associated with this crisis. Social ecology comprises different schools of thought, of which two initiated this special issue on “State of the Art and Future Prospects” for the research field. The approaches to social ecology of the ISOE—Institute for Social-Ecological Research in Frankfurt, Germany, and the Institute of Social Ecology (SEC) in Vienna, Austria are based on a common understanding of the challenges posed by social-ecological crises. In how these social ecologies tackle their research questions, conceptual differences become evident. In this article, we provide an overview of social ecology research as it is conducted in Frankfurt and in Vienna. We discuss how this research responds to the ongoing crisis and conclude by identifying important future prospects for social ecology.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-06-25
    Print ISSN: 0940-5550
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Philosophy
    Published by oekom
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