Studying native fishes of Hamadan province have been done in 159 stations from 51 important water resources (wetland, reservoir, spring, river and qanat) using with electric tool, cast-net, seine and gill-net gears from July 2010 to Oct. 2011 and the main aims were species identifying and determining their distribution and abundance in the studied area. In the study, 33411 fish specimens are caught in 257 times of sampling and selected randomly about 8500 individual and laboratory works showed the fish belong to 37 species from 7 families. Cyprinidae with 25, Nemacheilidae with 6 and Sisoridae with 2 species had the most diversity and Cobitidae, Poeciliidae, Salmonidae and Mastacembelidae had only a representative. 31 fish species were native or endemic and 6 species were alien. Fish species existed in all rivers of Ghezelozan and Sirvan sub-basins but there were not any fish in 10 rivers of Ghara-Chai sub-basin and in 6 rivers of Gamasiab sub-basin, too. Also, it was observe 1-3 fish species in 15 rivers, 4-6 fish species in 10 rivers, 7-10 fish species in 5 rivers and more than 10 fish species in 4 main water resources and Gamasiab sub-basin with 32 fish species was the most diversified and Ghezelozan sub-basin with 2 fish species was the least diversified. There were any species to 4 (mostly 1 or 2) fish species in studied qanats in Ghara-Chai and Gamasiab rivers sub-basins. 23 fish species existed in a subbasin, 12 species in 2 sub-basin, Capoeta capoeta in 3 sub-basin and Squalius cephalus in all sub-basins of studied area. Alburnoides nicolausi,Capoeta aculeata and Alburnus mossulensis have had the most frequency. Studying fish abundance showed Oxynoemacheilus argyrogramma with 17.8%, Garra rufa with 12.3%, A. mossulensis with 12.1% and C. aculeata with 10.2 % of total number of caught fish specimens are dominant. S. cephalus, Capoeta damascina, C. aculeata, C. trutta, Chondrostoma regium and A. mossulensis have had sport fishing value but Acanthobrama marmid, Oxynoemacheilus kiabii, Oxynoemacheilus kermanshahensis, Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi, Alburnus caeruleus and Mastacembelus mastacembelus have biodiversity value for being endemic or having limited habitats in Iran.
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