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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-12-20
    Description: Because self-incompatibility loci are maintained heterozygous and recombination within self-incompatibility loci would be disadvantageous, self-incompatibility loci are thought to contribute to structural and functional differentiation of chromosomes. Although the hermaphrodite chordate, Ciona intestinalis , has two self-incompatibility genes, this incompatibility system is incomplete and self-fertilization occurs under laboratory conditions. Here, we established an inbred strain of C. intestinalis by repeated self-fertilization. Decoding genome sequences of sibling animals of this strain identified a 2.4-Mbheterozygous region on chromosome 7. A self-incompatibility gene, Themis-B , was encoded within this region. This observation implied that this self-incompatibility locus and the linkage disequilibrium of its flanking region contribute to the formation of the 2.4-Mb heterozygous region, probably through recombination suppression. We showed that different individuals in natural populations had different numbers and different combinations of Themis-B variants, and that the rate of self-fertilization varied among these animals. Our result explains why self-fertilization occurs under laboratory conditions. It also supports the concept that the Themis-B locus is preferentially retained heterozygous in the inbred line and contributes to the formation of the 2.4-Mb heterozygous region. High structural variations might suppress recombination, and this long heterozygous region might represent a preliminary stage of structural differentiation of chromosomes.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-12-24
    Description: Stem cells are pivotal for development and tissue homeostasis of multicellular animals, and the quest for a gene toolkit associated with the emergence of stem cells in a common ancestor of all metazoans remains a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We reconstructed the conserved gene repertoire of animal stem cells...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-08-16
    Description: Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (~326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum , is AT-rich (~64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum . Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutu m and P. falciparum . However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum , suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-24
    Description: NLRP3 activation induces ASC-dependent programmed necrotic cell death, which leads to neutrophilic inflammation Cell Death and Disease 4, e644 (May 2013). doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.169 Authors: T Satoh, N Kambe & H Matsue
    Keywords: NLRP3inflammasomeCAPSprogrammed necrotic cell deathIL-1βneutrophil
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-12-19
    Description: Innate immunity in corals is of special interest not only in the context of self-defense but also in relation to the establishment and collapse of their obligate symbiosis with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. In innate immunity system of vertebrates, approximately 20 tripartite nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor proteins that are defined by the presence of a NAIP, CIIA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain, a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, and one of three types of N-terminal effector domain, are known to function as the primary intracellular pattern recognition molecules. Surveying the coral genome revealed not only a larger number of NACHT- and related domain nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 (NB-ARC)-encoding loci (~500) than in other metazoans but also surprising diversity of domain combinations among the coral NACHT/NB-ARC-containing proteins; N-terminal effector domains included the apoptosis-related domains caspase recruitment domain (CARD), death effector domain (DED), and Death, and C-terminal repeat domains included LRRs, tetratricopeptide repeats, ankyrin repeats, and WD40 repeats. Many of the predicted coral proteins that contain a NACHT/NB-ARC domain also contain a glycosyl transferase group 1 domain, a novel domain combination first found in metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the NACHT/NB-ARC domain inventories of various metazoan lineages, including corals, are largely products of lineage-specific expansions. Many of the NACHT/NB-ARC loci are organized in pairs or triplets in the Acropora genome, suggesting that the large coral NACHT/NB-ARC repertoire has been generated at least in part by tandem duplication. In addition, shuffling of N-terminal effector domains may have occurred after expansions of specific NACHT/NB-ARC-repeat domain types. These results illustrate the extraordinary complexity of the innate immune repertoire of corals, which may in part reflect adaptive evolution to a symbiotic lifestyle in a uniquely complex and challenging environment.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-06-20
    Description: Genome sequencing of Symbiodinium minutum revealed that 95 of 109 plastid-associated genes have been transferred to the nuclear genome and subsequently expanded by gene duplication. Only 14 genes remain in plastids and occur as DNA minicircles. Each minicircle (1.8–3.3 kb) contains one gene and a conserved noncoding region containing putative promoters and RNA-binding sites. Nine types of RNA editing, including a novel G/U type, were discovered in minicircle transcripts but not in genes transferred to the nucleus. In contrast to DNA editing sites in dinoflagellate mitochondria, which tend to be highly conserved across all taxa, editing sites employed in DNA minicircles are highly variable from species to species. Editing is crucial for core photosystem protein function. It restores evolutionarily conserved amino acids and increases peptidyl hydropathy. It also increases protein plasticity necessary to initiate photosystem complex assembly.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Aomori Prefectural Govemment and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited started environmental radiation monitoring around Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in April 1989. External radiation is measured by NaI(TI) scintillator and Themoluminescence dosimeter. The level of external radiation is relatively low in the winter due to snow. We have collected terrestrial samples of drinking water, soil, agricultural products and marine samples of seawater, sea sediment, seafood, etc. periodically. We have measured many radionuclides and fluoride in these samples. In soil sample,239+240Pu ratio to137Cs was almost constant at all sampling points. A correlation was observed between salinity and concentration of tritium, uranium and fluoride in lake water of Lake Obuchinuma. The correlation between137Cs and239+240Pu in lake sediment was observed in each lake.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1013-9826
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Posterolumbar fusion, which involves placing a bone graft in the posterolateral portion of the spine, has been applied to patients with lumbar instability due to structural defects or regressive degeneration. However, harvesting cancellous bone from the ilium is associated with severe postoperative pain, and patients experience more pain at the harvest site than at the graft site, thusresulting in poor patient satisfaction. If a tissue engineering approach was used to produce autogenous bone ex vivo with culture techniques, spinal fusion could be performed without damaging normal tissues. In all patients, 10 to 20 mL of bone marrow fluid was collected from the ilium and cultured in MEM containing autologous serum or fetal bovine serum and an antibiotic. After two weeks in primary culture, the marrow mesenchymal cells were seeded onto porous beta-TCP block, and tissueengineered bone were fabricated as we reported previously. Decompressive laminectomy and posterolateral lumbar fusion with use of the tissue engineered bone thus obtained were then done. In all patients, the implanted artificial bone survived and bone regeneration was detected radiographically, and the clinical symptoms were improved. Short term follow-up has shown that the bone implants were effective in all of the patients. There were no adverse reactions related toimplantation. The use of this tissue engineered bone makes it possible to perform osteogenetic treatment without harvesting autogenous bone, thus avoiding pain and pelvic deformity at the site of bone collection and reducing the burden on the patient
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1013-9826
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Availability, storage and transportation of engineered bone tissue fabricated in vitro are major practical problems associated with adequate use of bone replacement grafts for the treatment of bone diseases. The ability to maintain viable engineered bone tissue would facilitate future clinical applications. In the present study, we investigated time required for transportation of engineered bone removed from cool storage, from the culture room to the operating room; and examined effects of cool storage on survival of engineered bone tissue. Bone marrowcells wereobtained from the iliac bone of a 60-year-old male affected with lumbar spondylosis, and then incubated in standard medium. After two weeks in primary culture, cultured cells were trypsinized, and a concentrated cell suspension was incubated with a porous beta-TCP block. After 3 weeks of subculture with the osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone etc., engineered bone tissue wascollected, stored for 0, 6, 12, 24 hours at 4 °C, and was subcutaneously implanted into the back of nude mice. Six weeks after implantation, implants were harvested. Before and after implantation, significant activity could be detected in all animals. In in vitro and in vivo situations, osteogenic activity of engineered bone tissue could be maintained even after 24 hours. These results provided information on appropriate storage conditions for engineered bone tissue
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Adhesion ; gel ; decalin ; tetralin ; o-dichlorobenzene ; lowdensitypolyethylene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Adhesive effect of low density polyethylene (LDPE) gels in organic solvents such as decalin, tetralin, ando-dichlorobenzene on high density polyethylene (HDPE) moldings has been investigated by shearing tests, electron microscopy, and DSC measurements. When heated at 110°C for 2 h, all of the gels showed strong adhesive strengths around 30 kg/cm2, which is sufficiently strong for practical uses. It has been found that the adhesive strength increases with the heating temperature and that the temperature at which the heated gel begins to exhibit the adhesive effect depends upon solvents and is about 30° lower than that of the HDPE gels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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