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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Foundations of physics 29 (1999), S. 133-135 
    ISSN: 1572-9516
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7357
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Exact solutions are found of three textures for superfluid helium-3 in the A phase: two cylindrically symmetric textures in half-spaces each bearing a point singularity on the surface (which are categorized as the circular and hyperbolic boojum textures by Mermin), and a vortex sheet texture in a slab geometry, which is singular on two straight lines, one on each wall. The dipole interaction between the spin axis % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqaqpepeea0xe9qqVa0l% b9peea0lb9sq-JfrVkFHe9peea0dXdarVe0Fb9pgea0xa9pue9Fve9% Ffc8meGabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaieqaceWFKbGbaK% aaaaa!387B!\[{\hat d}\] and the orbital axis Î is taken into account to leading order by letting % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqaqpepeea0xe9qqVa0l% b9peea0lb9sq-JfrVkFHe9peea0dXdarVe0Fb9pgea0xa9pue9Fve9% Ffc8meGabaqaciGacaGaaeqabaWaaeaaeaaakeaaieqaceWFKbGbaK% aaaaa!387B!\[{\hat d}\] = Î, assuming temperature T is near the transition temperature T c, and the container size is ≫10\s-3 cm (the dipole characteristic length). Guided by these exact solutions, we then construct an approximate solution for a coreless vortex texture, which was first introduced by Anderson and Toulouse and later modified by Mermin in order for it to fit between two parallel surfaces. It was proposed by Anderson and Toulouse that such coreless vortex textures should replace usual vortex lines in mediating the decay of superfluidity and in transferring angular momentum from the container wall to the superfluid 3He-A. This is found to be true here only if D158.0(ξR)1/2, where D is the thickness of the slab geometry assumed R is the lateral size of this geometry, and ξ is the core size of a usual vortex line in 3He-A. This analysis is good for R ≫ D, but it should remain semiquantitatively valid down to R ~(2—3)D.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 77 (2000), S. 3797-3799 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We calculate the self-capacitance and charging energy of a spherical nanoparticle in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. The result is CTF=C0[1−p−1 tanh p]/[1−(1−cursive-epsilon−1)p−1 tanh p], with CTF≥C0. Here C0=4πcursive-epsilon0R is the classical geometrical value, p=R/l is the ratio of the particle radius R to the Thomas–Fermi screening length l, and cursive-epsilon is the material dielectric constant. The addition of surface localized states drives C toward C0. These results should be relevant to tunneling spectroscopy studies of giant carbon onions and "large" semiconductor nanocrystals that do not require a full quantum treatment. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
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    Unknown
    Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-07
    Description: We present a history of thermodynamics. Part 1 discusses definitions, a pre-history of heat and temperature, and steam engine efficiency, which motivated thermodynamics. Part 2 considers in detail three heat conservation-based foundational papers by Carnot, Clapeyron, and Thomson. For a reversible Carnot cycle operating between thermal reservoirs with Celsius temperatures t and t + d t , heat Q from the hot reservoir, and net work W, Clapeyron derived W / Q = d t / C ( t ) , with C ( t ) material-independent. Thomson used μ = 1 / C ( t ) to define an absolute temperature but, unaware that an additional criterion was needed, he first proposed a logarithmic function of the ideal gas temperature T g . Part 3, following a discussion of conservation of energy, considers in detail a number of energy conservation-based papers by Clausius and Thomson. As noted by Gibbs, in 1850, Clausius established the first modern form of thermodynamics, followed by Thomson’s 1851 rephrasing of what he called the Second Law. In 1854, Clausius theoretically established for a simple Carnot cycle the condition Q 1 / T 1 + Q 2 / T 2 = 0 . He generalized it to ∑ i Q i / T g , i = 0 , and then ∮ d Q / T g = 0 . This both implied a new thermodynamic state function and, with appropriate integration factor 1 / T , the thermodynamic temperature. In 1865, Clausius named this new state function the entropy S.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-03-04
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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