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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 441 (2006), S. 964-967 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air–sea balance of CO2 and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 365 (1993), S. 119-125 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The ocean is a significant sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide, taking up about a third of the emissions arising from fossil-fuel use and tropical deforestation. Increases in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration account for most of the remaining emissions, but there still appears to be a ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 356 (1992), S. 589-593 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Table la shows annual anthropogenic CO2 budgets for recent years as summarized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)1 and Tans et al.2. Both budgets show large imbalances which are generally attributed to uptake by terrestrial vegetation and/or soils3, although firm evidence for ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 349 (1991), S. 772-775 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A flux of dead biogenic organic matter from the ocean surface continuously transports carbon (and nutrients) to depth and thus influences the surface concentration of total dissolved inorganic carbon (1 CO2). Model studies have shown that variations in the efficiency of biological uptake and ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 308 (1984), S. 621-624 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Figure 1 shows that three-quarters of the ocean volume, approximately everything below 1 km depth, interacts with the atmosphere through 〈 4% of the ocean's high latitude surface area. The time scale of this interaction is of the order of 1,000 y r (ref. 2). An additional 16% of the ocean volume ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The ocean's biological pump strips nutrients out of the surface waters and exports them into the thermocline and deep waters. If there were no return path of nutrients from deep waters, the biological pump would eventually deplete the surface waters and thermocline of nutrients; surface ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The North Atlantic Ocean receives the largest allochthonous supplies of nitrogen of any ocean basin because of the close proximity of industrialized nations. In this paper, we describe the major standing stocks, fluxes and transformations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the pelagic regions of the North Atlantic, as one part of a larger effort to understand the entire N and P budgets in the North Atlantic Ocean, its watersheds and overlying atmosphere. The primary focus is on nitrogen, however, we consider both nitrogen and phosphorus because of the close inter-relationship between the N and P cycles in the ocean. The oceanic standing stocks of N and P are orders of magnitude larger than the annual amount transported off continents or deposited from the atmosphere. Atmospheric deposition can have an impact on oceanic nitrogen cycling at locations near the coasts where atmospheric sources are large, or in the centers of the highly stratified gyres where little nitrate is supplied to the surface by vertical mixing of the ocean. All of the reactive nitrogen transported to the coasts in rivers is denitrified or buried in the estuaries or on the continental shelves and an oceanic source of nitrate of 0.7–0.95 × 1012 moles NO 3 −1 y−1 is required to supply the remainder of the shelf denitrification (Nixon et al., this volume). The horizontal fluxes of nitrate caused by the ocean circulation are both large and uncertain. Even the sign of the transport across the equator is uncertain and this precludes a conclusion on whether the North Atlantic Ocean as a whole is a net source or sink of nitrate. We identify a source of nitrate of 3.7–6.4 × 1012 moles NO 3 − y−1 within the main thermocline of the Sargasso Sea that we infer is caused by nitrogen fixation. This nitrate source may explain the nitrate divergence observed by Rintoul & Wunsch (1991) in the mid-latitude gyre. The magnitude of nitrogen fixation inferred from this nitrate source would exceed previous estimates of global nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation requires substantial quantities of iron as a micro-nutrient and the calculated iron requirement is comparable to the rates supplied by the deposition of iron associated with Saharan dust. Interannual variability in dust inputs is large and could cause comparable signals in the nitrogen fixation rate. The balance of the fluxes across the basin boundaries suggest that the total stocks of nitrate and phosphate in the North Atlantic may be increasing on time-scales of centuries. Some of the imbalance is related to the inferred nitrogen fixation in the gyre and the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, both of which may be influenced by human activities. However, the fluxes of dissolved organic nutrients are almost completely unknown and they have the potential to alter our perception of the overall mass balance of the North Atlantic Ocean.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-03
    Description: Phosphate distributions simulated by seven state-of-the-art biogeochemical ocean circulation models are evaluated against observations of global ocean nutrient distributions. The biogeochemical models exhibit different structural complexities, ranging from simple nutrient-restoring to multi-nutrient NPZD type models. We evaluate the simulations using the observed volume distribution of phosphate. The errors in these simulated volume class distributions are significantly larger when preformed phosphate (or regenerated phosphate) rather than total phosphate is considered. Our analysis reveals that models can achieve similarly good fits to observed total phosphate distributions for a very different partitioning into preformed and regenerated nutrient components. This has implications for the strength and potential climate sensitivity of the simulated biological carbon pump. We suggest complementing the use of total nutrient distributions for assessing model skill by an evaluation of the respective preformed and regenerated nutrient components.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-03-03
    Description: A seven-component upper ocean ecosystem model of nitrogen cycling calibrated with observations at Bermuda Station “S” has been coupled to a three-dimensional seasonal general circulation model (GCM) of the North Atlantic ocean. The aim of this project is to improve our understanding of the role of upper ocean biological processes in controlling surface chemical distributions, and to develop approaches for assimilating large data sets relevant to this problem. A comparison of model predicted chlorophyll with satellite coastal zone color scanner observations shows that the ecosystem model is capable of responding realistically to a variety of physical forcing environments. Most of the discrepancies identified are due to problems with the GCM model. The new production predicted by the model is equivalent to 2 to 2.8 mol m−2 yr−1 of carbon uptake, or 8 to 12 GtC/yr on a global scale. The southern half of the subtropical gyre is the only major region of the model with almost complete surface nitrate removal (nitrate〈0.1 mmol m−3). Despite this, almost the entire model is nitrate limited in the sense that any addition of nitrate supply would go predominantly into photosynthesis. The only exceptions are some coastal upwelling regions and the high latitudes during winter, where nitrate goes as high as ∼10 mmol m−3.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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