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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 411 (2001), S. 163-166 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Current models of the evolution of the known extrasolar planetary systems need to incorporate orbital migration and/or gravitational interactions among giant planets to explain the presence of large bodies close to their parent stars. These processes could also lead to planets being ingested by ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-02-16
    Description: Author(s): T. Mendes-Santos, N. C. Costa, G. Batrouni, N. Curro, R. R. dos Santos, T. Paiva, and R. T. Scalettar Heavy-fermion systems and other strongly correlated electron materials often exhibit a competition between antiferromagnetic (AF) and singlet ground states. Using exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the effect of impurities in the vicinity of such an AF-singlet quantum critical point (… [Phys. Rev. B 95, 054419] Published Wed Feb 15, 2017
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-02-14
    Description: The old and metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 was observed with the Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) multi-object spectrograph during an extensive radial velocity campaign monitoring 317 stars with a median of 15 epochs per object. All the targeted stars are located along the upper main sequence of the cluster between 14.8 〈 V 〈 16.5. Fifty nine stars are confirmed cluster members both by radial velocities and proper motions and do not show evidence of variability. We detected 45 variable stars among which 25 belong to NGC 6253. We were able to derive an orbital solution for four cluster members (and for two field stars) yielding minimum masses in between ~90 M J and ~460 M J and periods between 3 and 220 d. Simulations demonstrated that this survey was sensitive to objects down to 30 M J at 10 days orbital periods with a detection efficiency equal to 50 per cent. On the basis of these results we concluded that the observed frequency of binaries down to the hydrogen burning limit and up to 20 d orbital period is around (1.5 ± 1.3) per cent in NGC 6253. The overall observed frequency of binaries around the sample of cluster stars is (13 ± 3) per cent. The median radial velocity precision achieved by the GIRAFFE spectrograph in this magnitude range was around ~240 m s – 1 (~180 m s – 1 for UVES). Based on a limited follow-up analysis of seven stars in our sample with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) spectrograph we determined that a precision of 35 m s – 1 can be reached in this magnitude range, offering the possibility to further extend the variability analysis into the substellar domain. Prospects are even more favourable once considering the upcoming ESPRESSO spectrograph at VLT.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-08-21
    Description: Pulp therapy is the last resort for preserving deciduous teeth. However, the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of many products used in this therapy are not well established. The aim of this study was to use the micronucleus test on bone marrow from mice to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of four filling pastes: zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide P.A., mineral trioxide aggregate and an iodoform paste (iodoform + camphorated + paramonochlorophenol + rifamycin + prednisolone). Male Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals, each exposed to one of the pastes, and were subdivided according to the dilutions tested: 1/10, 1/50, 1/500 and 1/1000 administered intraperitoneally (0.1ml/10g of weight). Cyclophosphamide was the positive control. The negative controls were dimethylsulfoxide and buffered saline solution. Five animals were killed 24h and five 48h after the treatment. The material was processed in accordance with Schmid (1976) and micronuclei were counted in 1000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE), under an optical microscope in a blinded test. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the PCE/normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE) ratio in 200 erythrocytes. The micronucleus analysis results were evaluated using the conditional test for comparing proportions in situations of rare events. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to evaluate the PCE/NCE ratio. There was significantly greater occurrence of micronuclei in the animals treated with iodoform paste at all the dilutions tested, at both sacrifice times. Greater occurrence of micronuclei was observed among the animals treated with zinc oxide and sacrificed 48h after the treatment, at the dilutions 1:50; 1:500 and 1:1000. Calcium hydroxide P.A. and mineral trioxide aggregate did not present any genotoxic or cytotoxic effects. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and iodoform paste revealed here constitute an initial step towards their contraindication, but additional studies will be necessary in order to securely establish the risks involved in their use.
    Print ISSN: 0267-8357
    Electronic ISSN: 1464-3804
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-15
    Description: Understanding the interconnections of microbial pathogenicity phenomena, such as biofilm formation, quorum sensing and antimicrobial resistance, is a tremendous open challenge for biomedical research. Progress made by wet-lab researchers and bioinformaticians in understanding the underlying regulatory phenomena has been significant, with converging evidence from multiple high-throughput technologies. Notably, network reconstructions are already of considerable size and quality, tackling both intracellular regulation and signal mediation in microbial infection. Therefore, it stands to reason that in silico investigations would play a more active part in this research. Drug target identification and drug repurposing could take much advantage of the ability to simulate pathogen regulatory systems, host–pathogen interactions and pathogen cross-talking. Here, we review the bioinformatics resources and tools available for the study of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungal species Candida albicans . The choice of these three microorganisms fits the rationale of the review converging into pathogens of great clinical importance, which thrive in biofilm consortia and manifest growing antimicrobial resistance.
    Print ISSN: 1467-5463
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-4054
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-03-10
    Description: The study of stellar parameters of planet-hosting stars, such as metallicity and chemical abundances, help us to understand the theory of planet formation and stellar evolution. Here, we present a catalogue of accurate stellar atmospheric parameters and iron abundances for a sample of 257 K and G field evolved stars that are being surveyed for planets using precise radial-velocity measurements as part of the Coralie programme to search for planets around giants. The analysis was done using a set of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph spectra. The stellar parameters were derived using Fe  i and ii ionization and excitation equilibrium methods. To take into account possible effects related to the choice of the lines on the derived parameters, we used three different iron line-list sets in our analysis, and the results differ among themselves by a small factor for most of stars. For those stars with previous literature parameter estimates, we found very good agreement with our own values. In the present catalogue, we are providing new precise spectroscopic measurements of effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence, and metallicity for 190 stars for which it has not been found or published in previous articles.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-05-01
    Description: We performed a uniform and detailed abundance analysis of 12 refractory elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Co, Sc, Mn, and V) for a sample of 257 G- and K-type evolved stars from the CORALIE planet search programme. To date, only one of these stars is known to harbour a planetary companion. We aimed to characterize this large sample of evolved stars in terms of chemical abundances and kinematics, thus setting a solid base for further analysis of planetary properties around giant stars. This sample, being homogeneously analysed, can be used as a comparison sample for other planet-related studies, as well as for different type of studies related to stellar and Galaxy astrophysics. The abundances of the chemical elements were determined using an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis relative to the Sun, with the spectral synthesis code moog and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. To separate the Galactic stellar populations, both a purely kinematical approach and a chemical method were applied. We confirm the overabundance of Na in giant stars compared to the field FGK dwarfs. This enhancement might have a stellar evolutionary character, but departures from LTE may also produce a similar enhancement. Our chemical separation of stellar populations also suggests a ‘gap’ in metallicity between the thick-disc and high-α metal-rich stars, as previously observed in dwarfs sample from HARPS. The present sample, as most of the giant star samples, also suffers from the B – V colour cut-off, which excludes low-log g stars with high metallicities, and high-log g star with low [Fe/H]. For future studies of planet occurrence dependence on stellar metallicity around these evolved stars, we suggest to use a subsample of stars in a ‘cut-rectangle’ in the log g –[Fe/H] diagram to overcome the aforementioned issue.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-10-18
    Description: Stellar evolutionary models simulate well binary stars when individual stellar mass and system metallicity are known. The mass can be derived directly from observations only in the case of multiple stellar systems, mainly binaries. Yet, the number of such stars for which accurate stellar masses are available is rather small. The main goal of this project is to provide realistic mass estimates for a homogeneous sample of about a thousand FGK single stars, using four different methods and techniques. We present the masses inferred according to each one of these methods as well as a final mass estimate consisting in the median of the four mass estimates. The procedures evaluated here include the use of stellar evolutionary models, mass–luminosity relation and surface gravity spectroscopic observations. By combining the results obtained with different methods, we determine the best mass value for each individual star, as well as the associated error budget. Our results confirm the expected consistency between the different mass estimation methods. None the less, for masses above 1.2 M , the spectroscopic surface gravities seem to overestimate the mass. This result may be a consequence of the spectroscopic surface gravities used in this analysis. Nevertheless, this problem is minimized by the fact that we have several approaches available for deriving stellar masses. Moreover, we suggest an empirical procedure to overcome this issue.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-09-01
    Description: In this work, we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin–Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitly the result up to the second degree in the limb-darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-11-14
    Description: At optical wavelengths, an exoplanet's signature is essentially reflected light from the host star – several orders of magnitude fainter. Since it is superimposed on the star spectrum its detection has been a difficult observational challenge. However, the development of a new generation of instruments like Echelle Spectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations (ESPRESSO) and next-generation telescopes like the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) put us in a privileged position to detect these planets’ reflected light as we will have access to extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. With this work, we propose an alternative approach for the direct detection of the reflected light of an exoplanet. We simulated observations with ESPRESSO at Very Large Telescope (VLT) and high-resolution spectrograph (HIRES) at E-ELT of several star+planet systems, encompassing 10 h of the most favourable orbital phases. To the simulated spectra we applied the cross-correlation function to operate in a much higher signal-to-noise ratio domain than when compared with the spectra. The use of the cross-correlation function permitted us to recover the simulated planet signals at a level above 3 noise significance on several prototypical (e.g. Neptune-type planet with a 2 d orbit with the VLT at 4.4 noise significance) and real planetary systems (e.g. 55 Cnc e with the E-ELT at 4.9 noise significance). Even by using a more pessimistic approach to the noise level estimation, where systematics in the spectra increase the noise 2–3 times, the detection of the reflected light from large close-orbit planets is possible. We have also shown that this kind of study is currently within reach of current instruments and telescopes (e.g. 51 Peg b with the VLT at 5.2 noise significance), although at the limit of their capabilities.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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