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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: The characteristics physicochemical studies in the northern part of the Oman Sea and Strait of Hormuz within the Iranian waters were conducted during 2007 and 2009.The project was implemented using Ferdous research vessel and with the cooperation of Chah Bahar Research Center. The sampling area included the whole stretch of the Iranian waters along the northern part of the Oman Sea from the northeast of the Iranian marine border of 30 miles Bay of Chabahar to the mouth of the Hormuz Strait in Hormuzgan province. Along this stretch 10 equally distributed transects at a distance of 30 miles away from each other were designated, 4 main sampling stations at a distance of 10 miles from one another were fixed at each transect. Sampling was conducted twice a year ( spring and autumn 2007 and 2009).Physicochemical parameters of water such as temperature, density, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, EC and chlorophyll-a were recorded at stations using CTD multiparameter probe. Nutrients samples were collected by multi water sampler and were measured by spectrophotometric method. According to achieved results; we can point out to the following outlines below: The beginning of thermocline layer starts in the regional Iranian Territorial Waters of Oman Sea; located at approximate depth of 10m; in spring, 20-40m; in autumn, and at 100m depth in winter; seasons, with an average difference in temperature of 10˚C; between surface and deeper layers. In another word, permanent thermocline exists annually in this body of water; where only the point of start, and the fracture width of thermocline layer; alter with alteration of seasons. Horizontal and vertical distribution of electrical conductivities, obey exactly from thermal degree structure; in such a way that, with increase in temperature; they increase, and with decrease in temperature; they decrease. Level of salinity increase from east to west, but it decrease; from surface to deeper layers. In deeper regions, especially in the midway east of the Oman Sea; the level of salinity in the deeper waters from 150-300m, there is a considerable increase observed in salinity, due to very high salinity waters of The Persian Gulf; that are entering the Sea of Oman, via the Striate of Hormouz from the bottom; where they are having their effect following the whole length of the Sea of Oman; through their path. The level of water density from offshore to onshore, and from surface to deeper levels increase in such a way that; its average in surface layers is 24g/cm^3, and at 400m depth; is 29g/cm^3, and at 600m; reaches to 30g/cm^3. The level of Chlorophyll-a in surface waters, in the northeastern midway; is higher than the northwestern midway of the Sea of Oman, and it decreases from inshore to offshore waters, but its vertical distribution; has caused somehow in a way, that the highest distribution and concentration of chlorophyll-a; to be formed in deeper layers, between about 20-40m depths. Then by the increase in water depth, its concentration decreases drastically; reaching zero in magnitude. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is higher in spring in comparison to that of autumn, and the highest level is achieved in water layers located at 10-40m depth (where the level of chlorophyll-a is higher). In addition to which, that its vertical structure; shows the existence of a permanent oxycline layer at this region, in a way that; by seasonal alterations (similar to that of thermocline layer), only the point of start and that of the thickness of oxycline layer changes. The layer of oxycline is established from seawaters; located at 10m depth in spring, and at20-40m waters in autumn; whereas the same layer is formed at 100m seawaters in winter, and then by water depth increase; it reaches crisis condition. The highest level of water pH; has been achieved in the spring of year 2009 (1388 Iranian Calendar), where some northern and northwestern regions of the Strait of Hormouz; were suffering from the remnants of red tide occurrences (~8.5), where the pH level decreased from water surface, and its vertical alteration trend; obeyed to that of the same for temperature and chlorophyll-a vertical structure, especially for dissolved oxygen parameter, where the maximum decrease was recorded coinciding with formation of oxycline layer. The level of water turbidity increased from offshore to inshore direction, but it decreased from water surface to depth for the Sea of Oman. But nutrient levels increased; at surface water layers from offshore to inshore, and from west to east, for the same body of water. In addition to that, concentration of nutrients in autumn (after monsoon); were more than that of, spring season (before monsoon), where; concentration of their vertical structure increase from water surface toward deeper sections.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: In this survey, hydrology and hydrobiologycal studies in the northern part of the Oman Sea and Strait of Hormuz within the Iranian waters were conducted during 2007 and 2009.The project was implemented using Ferdous research vessel.The sampling area included the whole stretch of the Iranian waters along the northern part of the Oman Sea from the northeast of the Iranian marine border of 30 miles Bay of Chabahar to the mouth of the Hormuz Strait in Hormuzgan province. Along this stretch 10 equally distributed transects at a distance of 30 miles away from each other were designated, 4 main sampling stations at a distance of 10 miles from one another were fixed at each transect. Sampling was conducted twice a year (spring and autumn 2007 and 2009). According to achieved results; we can point out to the following outlines below: permanent thermocline exists annually in this body of water; where only the point of start, and the fracture width of thermocline layer; alter with alteration of seasons. Horizontal and vertical distribution of electrical conductivities, obey exactly from thermal degree structure.Level of salinity increase from east to west, but it decrease; from surface to deeper layers. In deeper regions, especially in the midway east of the Oman Sea; the level of salinity in the deeper waters from 150-300m, there is a considerable increase observed in salinity, due to very high salinity waters of The Persian Gulf; that are entering the Sea of Oman, via the Striate of Hormouz from the bottom; where they are having their effect following the whole length of the Sea of Oman; through their path. The level of water density from offshore to onshore, and from surface to deeper levels increase in such a way that. The level of Chlorophyll-a in surface waters, in the northeastern midway; is higher than the northwestern midway of the Sea of Oman, and it decreases from inshore to offshore waters, but its vertical distribution; has caused somehow in a way, that the highest distribution and concentration of chlorophyll-a; to be formed in deeper layers, between about 10-40m depths. Then by the increase in water depth, its concentration decreases drastically; reaching zero in magnitude. Concentration of dissolved oxygen is higher in spring in comparison to that of autumn, and the highest level is achieved in water layers located at 10-40m depth (where the level of chlorophyll-a is higher). In addition to which, that its vertical structure; shows the existence of a permanent oxycline layer at this region, in a way that; by seasonal alterations (similar to that of thermocline layer), only the point of start and that of the thickness of oxycline layer changes.pH level decreased from water surface, and its vertical alteration trend; obeyed to that of the same for temperature and chlorophyll-a vertical structure, especially for dissolved oxygen parameter, where the maximum decrease was recorded coinciding with formation of oxycline layer.Nutrient levels increased; at surface water layers from offshore to inshore, and from west to east, for the same body of water. In addition to that, concentration of nutrients in autumn (after monsoon); were more than that of, spring season (before monsoon), where; concentration of their vertical structure increase from water surface toward deeper sections. In this survey six phylum of phytoplankton including in Bacillariophyta (88) Pyrophyta (111), Cyanophyta (6), Chropmophyta (2), Euglenaphyta and silicoflagellate (1) were identified. A result showed that density decreased in most transects from inshore toward sea and maximum density was in photic layer (0-25m). Phytoplankton densities (without Cochlodinium density) in post-monsoon were recorded higher than pre-monsoon, furthermore phytoplankton density in 2009 was more than 2007(6073±1038) Species richness was indexed in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon 2007 (0.337-0.519), (0.296-0.396) respectively and to (0.967-1.525), (1.407-1.531) for 2009. Zooplankton population in this study is characterized by eight phyla, eight classes, 15 orders, 35 families and 78 genus. In 2007, the pre-monsoon percentage of groups were frequently as following: Copepoda with stages of Nauplius and Copepeditide were 78%, Ciliphora 8%, Sarcomastigophora 4% and Hemichordata 6%. In post-monsoon order of frequency Copepoda 80%, Ciliophora 6%, Coelenterata 5%. Copepoda was the most abundant group of zooplankton.In 2009, The pre-monsoon Copepoda (82%), Cilillophora(9%), Sacromastigophora(4%) and Hemichordata (2%) in post-monsoon Copepoda(70%), Ciliophora (20%),Sarcomastigophora(4%) and Hemichordat (2%) dominante group were respectively. The static result showed significance betweendifferent transects and layers.We were recorded 31 ichthyoplankton families with different density and distribution during 2 years. Among benthic invertebrate polychaete with average 800 ind-2 and then amphipods and gastropods were the most abundance.Yearly density of macrobenthos showed polychaete with the average of 500 ind.-2 in 2007 and 1000 ind.-2 in 2009 was the most abundance . Macrobenthos density in postmonsoon was more than premonsoon.p〈0.05. An increasing and decreasing in density and biodiversity was obtain from coast to depth respectively p〈0.05.There was no significant different between macrobenthos density from Hormoz strait to Golf of Guiter.p〉0.05.There was a negative regression between macrobentos density and depth(p〈0.05) and positive rsgresion between macrobenthos and oxygen concentration and temperature.(p〈0.05).There was also a significant relationship between macrobenthos ,coppepda and polychaete density with organic carbon.p〈0.05.Bimass changed from strait to Golf and coast to depth increasingly.p〈0.05. The results of the measurement of heavy metals in water and Sea bed showed that the Concentration of heavy metals in surface layers in waters of the northern half of Oman Sea and Strait of Hormuz in spring (pre-monsoon) is more than autumn (after monsoon), and Degree of pollution in these areas are low compared to the global scale, Also, The results of the degree of contamination of sediments across the northern half of Oman Sea and comparison Global indicators of environmental quality assessment, it was found that the degree of contamination in the area in spring and autumn are low pollution. Comparison of the TPAH concentration of in Iranian waters of the Gulf of Oman, with other parts of the world indicate that degree of pollution of the waters in the spring 86 in the other seasons too low to medium level is low; but the degree of contamination in sediments, both in spring and in the autumn is much less; It means that the current risk on behalf of these contaminants, does not threaten the fish and benthos. The results of the risk assessment (THQ) of heavy metals in consumer, for yields Sangsar fish and fish Gish showed that the risk for both all the heavy metals, significantly lower than the one(1〈) and This means that urban communities in the province does not present any danger of feeling threatened.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: Corals are marine benthic animals typically living in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps (Barnes, 1987; Gateno et al., 1996; Sumich, 1996). Coral reefs are important for many reasons including: a) Most importantly, they provide protection and shelter for many different species of fish. b) They turn surplus carbon dioxide in the water into a limestone shell. Without coral, the amount of carbon dioxide in the water would increase dramatically and that would affect all living things on Earth. c) Similar to a barrier, the coral reefs protect coasts from strong currents and waves by slowing down the water before it gets to the shore. d) Coral reef ecosystems support a variety of human needs such as fisheries and tourism (James and Spurgeon, 1992; Moberg and Folke, 1999; Cesar, 2000). Therefore, the conservation of coral colonies is very vital for marine organisms and human. In Chabahar Bay, the coral reefs are in danger of destruction due to the development program of Shahid Beheshti Port. Since the corals are very sensitive to turbidity and suspended sediments from land reclamation and dredging projects, therefore appropriate measures should be conducted for conservation and recovery of them. At present, the coral relocation is suggested as a good method for recovery of coral reefs after a disturbance in condition of their native habitats. In our project, over 28,000 hard corals were transported to coast of Hotel Lipar (Fig. 1), an area at a distance of 3.5 km far from Shahid Beheshti Port. Also, the new techniques were used for coral reattachment and transportation.
    Keywords: Biology ; Conservation ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-25
    Description: In this project, the nutritional effects of Sargassum illicifolium Chabahar bay-Oman Sea, on growth and survival rates of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. The seaweed collected from 6 coastal area, rinsed, dried, powdered and measured the nutritional values in laboratory for surveying statistically. According to the high nutritional value of Tis coastal seaweed, this variate seaweed powder, replaced with protein resources (fish meal and Soy and Wheat) of whiteleg shrimp feed which was formulated by Havorash feed factory of Boshehr in four treatments (A: as control without any replacement) B: with 5%, C: 10 % and D: 15% seaweed replacement, each with three replicates in order to obtain isonitrogenus 33% CP., and Isocaloric (13% fat and 15% carbohydrate) feed. The weighed milled ingredients were carefully mixed using a laboratory food mixer. The mixtures were primed with 30% hot water to yield a suitable pulp. Wet diets were made into 2 mm pellet size and dried at 40 °C in a drying cabinet and maintained in standard condition which was used according to daily need shrimp, calculated by each 10 days biometry. Water stability and absorbtion capacity of the pellets in sea water were measured and compared statistically. Juvenile shrimps (Initial body weight =3 g) brought from Jask hatchery, acclimazed for one week in Chabahar hatchery condition and feeding daily 3-5% body weight. Abiotical parameters and weight and length biometrics were measured two days and 10 days, respectively. After 45 days and final biometry, FCR, CF, SGR, caracas analysis, muscle colourimetery with HPLC were done, tasted with pp Plot for determining the parametric data and statistically differences using one – way ANOVA, Duncan test of SPSS software. The Tis coastal seaweed with 9.8% CP, 2% lipid and 23% carbohydrate had higher nutritional value compared to the other gathered seaweed. Also amino acid and fatty acid profiles, vitamins and minerals were measured in all seaweed samples each, with three replications. As result, the water stability of D feed treatment in seawater (98%) and C (97%) had statistical differences with A and B (95% stability) (P〈0.05). Water absorption capacity of feeds after one hour immersion in seawater showed significance difference between D (110%) and three others, C(100%), B(85% and control(80%) (P〈0.05). Shrimp growth data, after the end of experiment revealed that seaweed feed treatments had no any differences with control group significantly. However, the absolute growth rate datas of D treatment were higher than others and the lower weight and lenght were measured in control group shrimp. FCR had difference between seaweed treatments and control statistically. There are no any differences between caracas lipid treatments (P〉0.05) but Cholestrol content of, showed differences between all, significantly (P〈0.05) which was the highest (121.68±12.12) in D and the lowest in A (147.92±11.02). Feed treatment D and C performed colour changes pink partial orang and pink in shrimp muscle with no any difference compared to white and none colour in shrimp were fed B and A feed treatments . It seems this colour changing can be playing a major role in market acceptability.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: The conservation of coral colonies is very vital for marine organisms and human. In Chabahar Bay, the coral reefs are in danger of destruction due to the development program of Shahid Beheshti Port. In this project, over 30,000 hard corals were transported to coast of Hotel Lipar an area at a distance of 3.5-4 kms far from Shahid Beheshti Port. Also, the new techniques were used for coral reattachment and transportation. The operation has done within expert divers and consultancy of Prof. Dr. Maikle Risk. Four methods performance as pailots. Since the corals are very sensitive to turbidity and suspended sediments from land reclamation and dredging projects, therefore appropriate measures should be conducted for conservation and recovery of them.37 patches in size 5×10 meters has built with concerete. Diffent sizes of corals were separated by mechanical tools and transported to new sites and reattachment on artificial sea bottom.Three monthes after the last reattachments monitored showed that %96.93 of corals were in good health. This success was the important achievement because of innovating coral carrier and mass coral relocation. At present, the coral relocation is suggested as a good method for recovery of coral reefs after a disturbance in condition of their native habitats.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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